The Purpose Of Downloads And The Different Types Of Downloads

When it comes to downloads, downloading simply means accessing and transferring computer data from one computer to another through a network or by a connection. From a user’s perspective, it is the reception of files from an external larger source, usually a server, to be relocated to the user’s own system. Conversely, uploading is the transfer of data from a smaller system to an encompassing server, for the purpose of information display or so other users may download it to theirs.

Without the download or upload function, the concept of integrative technologies and connected systems will not exist. We will be having our own computers and data for only ourselves. Data transfer will be hugely limited to manual and hassle ways. Imagine having to deal with multiple revisions from a client via snail mail – how primitive.

Today more than 2.5 quintillion bytes of data are created and transferred daily. And more than 90% of all data created since the beginning were generated over the last 2 or 3 years. This is mainly due to the increasing dependency of our civilization to informationization which enhance productivity and efficiency. Data digitization is used in almost all fields of human activity: Schools use the internet to upload lectures and download assignments, corporations utilize servers to communicate with their workers, and to monitor KPIs, and bloggers share their stories through social media. All these activities require the transfer and download of data to an interested user’s computer.

Downloads don’t only include downloadable files or attachments. Merely browsing webpages or streaming videos can be considered downloading. In this special situation, the downloaded data is sent to a nonpermanent location and removed when you delete your browser history or cache.

Nevertheless, the regular download which most of us know is the internet file that gets placed usually in your Downloads Folder or if you’re just like me, end up as a clutter in my Desktop space.

Here is a list of downloadables anyone can enjoy:

1. Applications

Mobile apps have been ruling the internet, and for a good reason. They basically mechanize all aspects in life. You name it – gaming, exercising, diet, deliveries, groceries, budget and payables, social media, streaming, reading, and the list goes on. Everything’s been done. Apps are an efficient extension of ourselves that help make our errands and activities more convenient. If you have a smart phone, you can check all apps you need and don’t through its app download platform (e.g. Google Play Store and Apple App Store)

2. Videos, Music And Pictures

Movies, anime, the latest album of your favorite band, an embarrassing online photo of your best friend which you plan to play on their wedding day, and what not – you can enjoy these treats even without the internet. It’s easy downloading these files. While some webpages offer direct links, there are some that don’t such as YouTube. Luckily, there are other webpages that provide a download service. The steps couldn’t be easier as copy and pasting the web URL of desired information to the downloader webpage.

3. Office and School Tools

Whether it’s a lecture presentation which you plan to cram the entire night or simply some paperwork you need to fill out, receiving comes as a breeze. Be sure your computer has the necessary software to read and edit file types including PDF Files, word documents, spreadsheets, diagrams, and visual presentation.

Downloading gets the things you need from the internet prepped for your viewing pleasure. But the convenience in this process depends mainly on two things. First, a great internet connection for those extemporaneous movie night outs, and second an effective anti malware program to keep your computer healthy.

Binary Options Trading

Binary options trading is probably the most lucrative marketplaces nowadays because of the potential for huge gains in a short period of time. In the prior, it has been seen as an haven for people looking intended for big gains, but Binary options trading is mostly deemed as fairly successful whenever they have achieved a rate of return of 10 % per year for their trading portfolio. A Binary Option trading is a form of option where the trader takes a yes or no position on the cost of a financial asset, and the resulting payoff is all or nothing. Because of this, Binary Options trading can be safer to understand and trade than standard options.

Binary Options are cash settled because European’s style options trading, meaning they can only be exercised within the expiration period. If, at expiration, the options trading trading settle in-the-money, the buyer or seller of the selections receives a pre-specified dollar amount. Similarly, if the options work out out-of-the-money, the buyer or owner receives nothing. This provides any known upside (gain) or downside (loss) risk assessment. Unlike standard options trading, Binary Options trading provide full payout irrespective of how far above (or below) the option settles from the strike cost.

A Pefect Way To Understand Binary Option Trading

  1. A trader of Binary Options needs to anticipate the expected direction on the price movement of the asset and are called Put and Call. Put is the prediction of a price decrease, while Call is the prediction of the price increase. Knowing the magnitude of the movement is not just required. Instead, one can only manage to correctly predict whether the price on the chosen asset will be higher or less than the strike price.
  2. Evaluate the current market conditions surrounding your selected asset and determine whether the price is going to rise or fall. If your insight is correct, on the particular expiration date, your payoff will be the settlement value of your contract. The return rate on each profitable trade is decided upon by the broker and this amount is always made upfront.

The thing about binary options trading is, you cannot enter a trade unprepared. To be able to meet long term success, you need to have a viable technique of identifying profitable trades and a superb money management system to be sure you are never risking too much at any point in time or risking too little for the trade to pay dividends. Binary options trading strategies can take months (or longer) to build up, and if you skimp on this area of your buying and selling, you will likely not achieve success. Do your research on the asset you are looking for and make sure that there is a good entry point. This will ensure that you are being efficient at finding winning trades.

What Are Binary Options?

Traders know that binary options are an easy and effective way to trade price fluctuations in many different worldwide markets. However, traders need to take in account the pros and cons that binary options entail. When one trades binary options, they will find that there a few things they should consider. Different binary options have varying payouts, costs, and uncertainties involved. Binary options are basically options where a holder can receive a set amount of money, or no money at all if the option expires out of the money. There are only two choices to choose from, yes or no.

Why Binary Options?

Binary options are appealing to investors because they are simple. All the investor has to do is to make a guess if an event will occur, or if it won’t. Binary options can be as simple as waiting to check if a certain company’s share price will rise by ‘x’ amount, on a certain date, and at a certain time. If that share price happens to rise during that time, the option is automatically exercised, and the holder gets a certain amount of cash. Binary options aren’t that complicated, though, binary options trading is a great way for any novice to get their feet wet in the financial markets.

How to Trade

Anyone looking to trade binary options can trade on Nadex, or the North American Derivatives Exchange. Here, traders will be able to sell and buy binary options on the exchange without having to use a broker. Nadex is the first regulated United States exchange for binary options. There is no risk of losing money if a counterparty finds anything difficult when trying to meet with the expectations of any transaction as well. All trades are done while on the exchange and Nadex clears and guarantees all of the trades, too. Any funds Nadex members receive are held in separated United States bank accounts.

The Pros and Cons of Binary Options Trading

There are many advantages and disadvantages when dealing with binary options trading. On the Wall Street stock market or the forex markets, price gaps and slippage might sometimes arise. In the case of binary options, the risk is limited. When trading, it’s impossible to lose more than the initial cost of the trade. Traders might also find that they’ll get great returns when dealing with low activity markets. In lesser known markets, it’s difficult to make money with a stock index or forex pair. In the case of binary options, traders are able to see guaranteed results.

In Summation

Essentially, binary options are simple options with two conditions: yes or no. How much money one is able to make and lose is all determined by the buy or sell price, and if an option is worth $100 or $0 if it expires. The risk and reward both have a ceiling. This means that the ability to exit an option as needed before it expires in order to net a profit or prevent a loss is always available to the trader. Though binary options are simple in concept, they are not necessarily easy to make money with. Traders have to keep in mind that they should only trade with expendable capital. It’s always a wise idea to have some practice with binary options before investing any serious capital.

Who Says Forex Doesn’t Work?

Forex or the Foreign Exchange market is the online marketplace where foreign currencies are traded. Foreign exchange is inevitable, as it is the backbone of foreign businesses and trade. This is precisely the reason why the Forex market is the most liquid marketplace in the world.

Unique Features

• As it is the largest financial market, the total value traded per day goes up to trillions of US dollars.

• There is no centralized physical market for currency exchange. Instead, trading is done electronically through computer networks around the world, 24 hours a day, and five days a week. When the trading day ends in Canada, the market is buzzing with activity in Australia.

What are the spot, forwards and futures markets?

Trading is done in three different ways in these markets.

1.   Spot market

When people usually refer to the Forex marketplace, they are actually referring to the spot market. 

The spot market is the location where foreign currency exchange takes place between businesses. The rate at which currency is exchanged is determined by many factors like,

  • The current political scenario in the country, whose currency is being bought.
  • Current rates of interest.
  • The performance of that country in the world economy.
  • An estimation of the future value of that currency.

 At the spot market, two parties exchange currency at a set value, and the deal is settled in cash, after two days.

2.   Forwards market

The forwards market is the location where contracts are traded between parties who determine the terms and conditions of the settlement themselves.

3.   Futures market

At the futures market, future contracts are traded based on a standard settlement date, regulated by a governing body. For instance, the National Futures Association regulates the futures market in the US.

Future and forwards markets offer a certain level of protection against risks. So, big businesses use these markets to hedge against future fluctuations in currency exchange rates.

Forex Trading – The Basics

Forex Trading is, simply put, buying or selling currencies in pairs. When you buy, you expect the cost of your pair to increment over time. This is called appreciation, and you stand to get a profit. If you sell, you expect a drop in the value of your currency. This is called depreciation.

Some Pointers for Forex Trading

1. Select a trading method that you are comfortable in. Pick currency pairs that are recommended for beginners, and learn the flow of the market. Practice trading using your chosen method for three months, before you explore other tactics.

2. Choose a time for trade when the market has maximum liquidity. High volumes of trade may occur in the evening for your chosen currency pairs; so keep yourself available at that time.

3. An automated trading system will help beginners understand the trade. One of the major benefits of the automated machines is that your trades will be unemotional and disciplined.

4. You have to keep an eye out and stop loss. You stop when you have reached a certain amount that you initially set aside for an unpredictable loss. Beginners of Forex trading who do not follow this golden rule have easily been bankrupt! So, do not keep going till you are completely drained on funds today. Tomorrow could be a better day.

5. Select a point where you take profit, and adhere to it. When the market is moving in your direction, you should be aware that the situation could turn around in minutes. So, stop when you have gained a decent profit. Multiple small profits would add up to big amounts; so ditch the greed!

6. Proceed without fear. You could lose out on profits if you take profit before your predetermined point. Trust yourself and have faith in your predictions. Market fluctuations are common in this trade, and if the swings are within your predetermined points for stop loss and take profit, you should stay calm. 

7. Surround yourself with people who are knowledgeable in the game. You can really learn a lot of tactics from experienced traders.

8. Take risks with well-calculated decisions. This is a business that rides on risks, anyway.

9. Keep a journal of your trades so that you can view your progress and losses. This will offer you good reference material, in the long run, to understand your losses and be a better trader.

10. Follow the chart and trade according to the trend shown there. Don’t make assumptions; just follow the graph.

11. With some keen observation and practice, beginners can reap good profits from Forex trading. Economic analysts have stated that Forex trading has many advantages when compared to stock trading.

In conclusion, follow the above guidelines, and you can really make Forex work for you.

7 Tips to Make Big Bucks Trading In Your Spare Time

The decentralized currency trading market with a global base for buying, selling and undergoing other forms of monetary exchange through volume trading is termed as Foreign Exchange or Forex Market. 

The Financial Institutions, Global Banks form the pivot of trading in Forex through a common platform by roping in buyers and sellers from across the world. A proper understanding of the mode of operation along with a comprehensive and thorough analysis of the automated trading platform can be used to leverage maximum profits, even at your leisure. 

The huge trading volumes and class of quality asset coupled with its geographical spread, make it a lucrative platform to get in with a fat chance of earning big bucks. A mathematical approach to the portfolio management and investment analysis derails you from taking pot luck to a more systematic realization of profits. Here are the seven steps to economic salvation:

1. The Time Series Model and its Ramifications

The Moving Average method to get a price check is one the most effective weapon at one’s disposal. You should continue investing when the investment trend is glued to the Moving Averages as it enhances the probability of elimination of bias. 

The Moving averages should be based on time frames so that one can be privy to the bearish times. The seasonal and cyclical variations are part of the larger game where an Autoregressive Moving Average method would come in handy for trend evaluation.

2. Perseverance in Trade Planning at the Forex Market

The market sentiments usually get into a panic-stricken mode due to the inadequacy of risk management acumen. To realize a short-term profit, one gives in to the evil of losing acquired assets and vice versa. 

But a more realistic approach may be to resort to a predetermined stop for withdrawal of profits, which may be fixed on a comprehensive forecasting model of the market. 

Based on a multiplicative seasonality, the increasing seasonal variations may be identified and smoothed out. This is quite functional to set up the perfect predetermined stop.

3. A Probabilistic Interpretation of the Outcomes

In lieu of over-emphasizing on Elliot Wave patterns, a probabilistic outlook to the different patterns displayed by the curve is more imperative. High probability patterns are to be segregated from the low probability patterns for a comprehensive study of market behavior.

4. The Search for the Perfect Pair

Despite the fact that forex trading occurs with every tick of your clock, investing at the peak hours may turn out to be a safer bet. Liquidity in the markets is in their high, depending on the currency pairs you choose to trade upon. For assured returns on investments, it is advisable to bank upon the established hard currencies. 

However, care should be taken that too much of positive market sentiment for a particular currency may scale up the cost of investments. In such cases, it is better to avoid them and go for a lower one instead, as the yield would be higher in the second scenario. 

In other words, if there is too much demand for US dollars, prices of the dollar to your currency will soar up. From there, it can only depreciate with a much higher probability than any appreciation trend.

5. Let Go of the Manual Trading System

If you are a beginner at Forex trading, bank upon technologies to better serve your cause. Software that recognizes profitable spreads in a dynamic market could monitor currency values real time. It may also suggest the profitable currency at the time of making an investment. 

A clear and concise analysis of the market trends along with a ‘set and forget’ module can help the investor the right decision. More programmable variants to suit other exigencies of the market may be resorted to.

6. A Disciplined Approach to Mitigate Sudden Market Upheavals

Before there is a reversal in trend due to some external emergencies, traders can sniff out their money when there is a favorable balance of trade accounts. 

The twin policies of ‘Trailing Stop’ and ‘Stop order for market’ may minimize market risks.  The mini Forex trading account requires lesser than the standard deposit of cash i.e. an exact 1000 currency units. With the mini accounts, traders can buy currency lots on margin.

7. Keep Yourself Up To Date

A comprehensive glance at the currency calendar would provide the trader with the major new releases. Apart from that, keep the regulatory provisions and the list suitable Forex broker at your finger-tips to garner maximum profits.

How to Make Money Using Forex Trading

Investors in the market today can trade with any currency they like. They can use all the currencies in the world. Investors, who can be anybody or entity ranging from individuals to corporations, are good enough to use forex trading platform to trade if they have financial elements that contribute towards a strong capital for them to get started. If there is a good initial investment, then they can expect good returns as well.  But the money making process in forex trading is a very predictive process. The trading works where the trader is investing in one currency and the value of it is determined by all the other currency that are in the game.

Currencies that are used in forex trading are traded and they are also priced in sets.  It is up to an investor who is working with the forex trading to determine how he wants to make money using forex options. How an investor makes money in forex is by either an appreciation in the value of the quoted currency, or there can be an appreciation in the currency or depreciation. All the appreciation and the depreciation depend on the base currency that is used in the trade. In the trading market of forex options, the investor can buy any currency or sell any currencies.

The start of the trade, i.e. placing an investment for trade in the forex options market is very easy process. It is very similar to the regular stock market. If you have every worked with any of the trading market, then using to the forex trading options should not be a difficult task. The main goal of the forex exchange is to use one currency from the investor and use it for the other. The price of the traded currency will differ with different currencies. 

If you are looking to make some money using the forex trading market, then you need to follow the below given steps.

  1. The investor needs to understand the basic terminologies of forex trading. He needs to know what the currency is that he is going to use for trading and how that currency will fluctuate in his trade.
  2. The investor needs to know how to read the forex quote. There are two numbers in the forex quote there is a bid price on the left of the quote and the asking price on the right of the quote.
  3. Decide on what currency will you buy and sell. Calculate the profits and losses based on that.
  4. Open a broker account and activate it. You will need to research on the brokerage factors as well.
  5. Start the forex trade. The investor will need to study the market conditions.
  6. He would need to analyze how the trading market and where he needs to invest.
  7. Calculate the profit margin that you expect for your trading currency.
  8. Place the trade in the forex market. There are different orders that you can place and make profits.

What are Binary Options trading and its Advantages?

Binary options trading will have emerged as a profitable and as well as an entertaining mode of trading. Binary options trading will be a contract that will have only two outcomes either to win or lose. 

What is binary options trading?

A binary option is the best way of investing in an asset price that will have only two closing positions. The asset price will have either finished higher than or lower than the price when trading began. A trader will generate a good return by selling the asset when the price has risen from the price of the asset at the outset. 

You have to take the time to learn and understand the simple concepts. Binary options trading will be the simplest form of trading market price. The best binary systems and the binary signals will be based on the price action. Binary options will be a plain and simple way to trade and it is based on your opinion over the certain period of time. 

Advantages of binary options trading:

  • Accessible:

Binary options trading will be easily accessible kind of the trading available. Investors will not follow the set of time schedule and they will invest in any available assets at any time. 

  • No investment required:

No large investment will be required. The small investor was discouraged from the investing the trading that will involve the huge amounts of investments. The small investment amount will be sufficient to start trading in the market.

  • Simple and easy to understand:

Binary options trading will be simple when compared to the other forms of trading and it will not require the investor to understand the details. Based on the knowledge of the market, the investor will decide what to do with their binary options. If it is predicted correctly then investors will end up by making a huge amount of money.

  • Fast results:

Investors will select the life cycle of a binary options contract and then will be the certain amount time to receive their payout. There will be short term trades that will be available to the investor and the trading will become popular. 

  • Risk management:

Binary options trading will allow the investor to use the various strategies and it will minimize the risk in their trading. All strategies will be based on the proper money management. This is important to understand and guidelines to follow. Without proper risk money management, the trading will become a gamble.

  • Uncertainty:

In another form of trading, the factor of uncertainty will be high and traders will be anxious. In binary options trading, there will not be much uncertainty and there will be predetermined. Most of the traders will know the exact expiry times. 

  • Variety of choices:

Binary trading platforms will offer a number of choices to traders. The traders will choose any contract that will be based on their interest and knowledge.

These are the advantages of the binary options trading will make an ideal choice of investment for new and experienced traders.

The Multiple Benefits Of A Conference Call

Not every business can benefit from a conference call, but many can. Any business which needs to keep its employees motivated or informed should use conference calls. It’s a simple way to keep everyone in the loop. Traveling sales persons and office bound workers can interact and this may encourage both groups. Speaking with each other regularly encourages comradery and the team mentality.

Conference calls can be scheduled when the majority of people on the call have a slow period in the day, so very little work is disturbed. This could be early morning, mid-day around lunch or after work. Many companies regularly schedule conference calls outside of the work day. This is understood by the employees and is an accepted practice by many professions. Other businesses wouldn’t dream of disrupting an employee’s personal time with business. It all depends on the culture of your organization.

Teams of workers often rely on communication to be effective. A conference call keeps all the members of the team well informed of their teammate’s activities and the team’s goals. It helps them to be aware of the needs of their teammates and consequently, any tasks that should be done to facilitate their performance can be executed because everyone knows what steps are needed. These conference calls may include the entire team or only a portion of the team, depending on the urgency of distributing the information directly. It may be possible to give second hand information if it doesn’t slow down the operations of the team. With team work often the troops need to be rallied and given a pep talk to motivate those who are in a slump. A conference call may be the ideal way to jumpstart anyone who is struggling with motivation.

Conference calls can be directed at the whole organization and be headed by the president or CEO and include everyone in the organization. They could also be hosted by the team leader and have a more exclusive involvement, just a few teammates. However they are used, the goal is to disseminate information and encourage other group participants or employees to perform better and to perform as a team.

Easy Password Recovery Techniques

There are a number of people who have a lot of online accounts. Some may have an account of two or more on the following online programs or social networking sites: Facebook, Twitter, Friendster, My Space, LiveJournal, Tagged, Orkut, and the likes. Sometimes, one password could rumble up with another and without you knowing, you are left with an unrecalled password. One way to retrieve a forgotten password is through password recovery programs.

One program that can help you with password recovery is the website’s official password recovery program. This can be done by simply clicking the “Forgot your Password?” link. This link is usually located below the password log in entry field in your chosen networking site. Of course, you will not automatically see your password. You need to fill-in other information required by the website such as your email address, phone number, and oftentimes the program will ask you to enter the distorted words presented in the Captcha ( this prevents automated hacking and to prove than the one retrieving the password is human). After filling up this data, you will receive a confirmation letter in your email. Some sites will require you to enter a code number (seen inside the confirmation letter) while some will just ask you to click a link (included inside the confirmation letter) that will automatically direct you to another tab and ask you for your new password. Once you have already entered your new password, you are now ready to plunge in into your account.

Another program that can help you with password recovery is the WebBrowserPassView. This program can be downloaded online. This program has the capability to recover password from four different browsers namely Firefox, Opera, Internet Explorer and Google Chrome. After downloading the program, open the zip file and run the WebBrowserPassView.exe. It should be noted that this program can extract all password from your system and your anti-virus software may stop this program from running. Once the main window is opened, you will automatically see four columns with the following headings: URL, Web Browser, User Name and Password. Simply look for your URL to find your password.

These are some ways that can help you recover your password. With these techniques, you will surely feel at ease when you forget your password the second time around.

A Brief Look At How To Use LinkedIn

There are several social networks on the internet today. Some are popular and some are hardly known. Most social networks put an emphasis on the social networking aspects, but there is one, LinkedIn, that emphasizes on developing professional networks. If you are new to this website, then you should know little about how to use LinkedIn.

The first thing that you should do is to create your profile carefully. This profile acts as an online resume that most people will read when they are connecting with you. If you have a company, you can use the profile to get connections to other entrepreneurs who you can form mutually beneficial relationships. With this site, you can form relationships with people who may be in your field or other related one.

You can also use the site to market your business, without spamming people. You can look for clients, or potential employees online. If on the other hand you are looking for a job, this is a great way to meet with potential employers. Let them see what you are capable of and they will hire you based on the merits of your profile, and online interaction.

Get to understand the type of connections that you can make. The first degree, are those connection that you make through primary invitations. The second are those connected to your first degree, and the third are a level lower. This way you can grow your connections exponentially.

Make sure that you join some groups. Once you have joined, become a regular visitor, and leave some stimulating conversations. This will make people notice you and appreciate your expertise. This is a great way of marketing yourself, either as an entrepreneur, or as a job seeker. These are some of the ways how to use LinkedIn and build your business or career.

Become A LinkedIn Ninja: Advanced User Tips

Chances are good that you use – or at least have heard of – (usually just called LinkedIn). For those who have not, LinkedIn is perhaps best described as a marriage between the bubbly young social networking bride and her stuffy, much older resumé groom. In short, it is the modern professional’s digital business card, and you should get one if you are at all serious about networking within your professional sphere.

While most people who use the service have the basics down, there are some tips and tricks that can make your experience that much richer, and set you apart from the quote-unquote rabble. As with most things of this nature, what you actively do is matched in importance by the things you do not – anybody can make one misstep, but keep flubbing up, and the success of your next schmoozing session, job hunt, or other career objective could wind up in jeopardy.


This one is simple: Cross-platform integration is your friend.

Are you eager to show a potential client or employer a sample of your work? Why not use services like or the Portfolio Display feature to show your stuff? Or perhaps you are already working with or for someone, and you have a report or other document to show them. In that case, document-sharing utilities like SlideShare can make getting that big report where it needs to be when it needs to be there just a little bit easier.

Of course, you do not want to seem totally impersonal and devoid of character, so there is the option to integrate your blog or other social media into your account, should you wish it.

No matter what you do, the bottom line is that in the business world, speed and ease make winners. Cross-platform integration can help you be exactly that.


These are simple too, but many people fail to understand them, and their experience suffers. may be a new spin on the resumé, but those old rules about first impressions and social grace still apply… so do not be annoying.

Do not “like” your own stuff, manipulate your discussion / group threads with useless stuff, or inundate your network with useless (a.k.a. off-topic) Twitter or Facebook posts. In short, the rules of are much like the rules of any other business setting: Do not artificially inflate your own importance (nobody likes a blowhard, online or off), because sooner or later, it will come back to bite you – maybe right in the wallet.

So there you have it: Everything you need to know to be a ninja. Happy networking.

The Switch To Alternative Fuel Is Essential

Alternative energy is something people would be foolish to ignore. Not just because it is cleaner for the environment, but because it in the future it will be the only fuel available to power society. Many people fail to realize traditional methods for fuel are not limitless. This will not effect the current generation, but the generations in the future will have to deal with this problem. If this problem is not dealt with, there will be no fuel in the future. The sooner people learn how to use alternative fuel to power society, the sooner they will not have to worry about fuel running out.

It is going to take a period of decades for the switch to alternative energy to complete, and that is if large corporations and populations readily make the switch. In all likelihood, large corporations will be slow to give up profits from traditional fuels, and people will be slow to temporarily leave their comfort zones to make the switch to alternative energy. This will lead to people panicking when they find out traditional fuel will run out.

There are a lot of ways for people to get fuel without using traditional fuels such as oil and coal. Wind and solar power are great examples of alternative forms of energy. If awareness is properly raised about the need to switch to alternative energy, and it is shown how easy it is to use alternative fuel, future generations will not have a problem switching to alternative means for fuel.

The main reason people have not already made the switch to alternative fuel is because they are used to traditional fuel methods. It is no secret the environment is being ruined because of the materials people now use for fuel. If the switch to alternative fuel is not made fuel will run out, and the environment will be ruined. Making the switch to alternative fuel will save the planet, provide people with more efficient energy, and keep people from ever having to worry about running out of energy to power the planet. The benefits of switching to alternative fuel far outweigh the benefits of using traditional fueling methods.

Factors To Consider When Choosing An Attorney

There are many situations in life that require legal assistance and representation. Irrespective of which situation you are facing, it is very important that you find representation from a professional who is competent and reliable. There are plenty of these professionals in the market today which makes the task of choosing a lawyer rather challenging. To ensure you choose the right Attorney, the following are some factors which you should consider.

1. Ask for referrals
There are a number of approaches which can be used in locating an attorney. One common approach is asking for recommendation from people you trust. Let your workmates, friend, relatives or neighbors refer professionals they trust. These professionals should preferably be people whose services have been evaluated before.

2. Specialization
The very first consideration should be the field of specialization of that attorney. There are many field of law; hence it would be prudent if a lawyer specializing in the specific field of need is selected. A specialized lawyer is familiar with any new developments in that field and is in a better position of offering services that suit your situation. Avoid general practitioners since they may just handle your case or need haphazardly.

3. Experience
Experience is the next big consideration that should be made. Legal cases and needs are usually complicated hence quality results are always obtained depending on which strategy or strategies the lawyer employs. However, there are new entrants in the market who are also capable of offering good services but there is no guarantee on this.

4. Cost of services
The cost of services is another important factor. Lawyers charge differently and also use different mechanisms of billing. Personal injury lawyers are expected to work on contingency basis and then receive their fee after a successful settlement is arrived at. Lawyers will either charge a fixed rate or base their rates on an hourly basis.

When searching for an Attorney, you have to make sure you choose the right one. Specialization, experience and cost of services are factors that are of vast importance hence you must ensure you evaluate them before settling on any lawyer. Ask people close to you to refer professionals they trust.

How To Choose The Best Web Hosting Company

The number of web hosting companies from which you can choose is overwhelming and this makes the process of selecting a suitable service provider challenging. If you are unfamiliar with the whole concept of hosting a website, you need to conduct a good research so to make an informed decision when that time comes. The following are factors to be considered while choosing the best web hosting company.

1. Scalable services
Every business eyes to grow its operations hence the service provider should offer services which are highly scalable. A company which has the ability to accommodate you when your operations grow would be the best bet. Get to know if the firm has any dedicated server solutions which will enable them to easily upgrade your account. Remember that changing over to another host provider can cost valuable time and price.

2. Your business needs
Every type of business has its unique and specific needs and this means that a hosting firm should be in a position to serve this needs. Some service providers provide plans which are fit for small businesses while some offer services very fit for established firms. Consider in looking into the field of specialty of that firm before purchasing their services.

3. features
Depending on the type of website you want to run and the type of services you will be hosting, you should go for a package that serves you optimally. Some of the characteristics of the best web host company for a busy site include high processing power, a big RAM and a bigger disk space. These characteristics will enable you offer quick and reliable services on your site characterized with quick upload time.

4. Emergency response
Server failures irrespective of how long they take can have adverse effects to your business enterprise. However, with technical equipments, failures can sometimes be unavoidable but if the response is quick, a lot can be saved. This is a characteristic that should be deliberated on before choosing a provider.

Get to know if there are any additional features being offered that make the deal a better one. Reading reviews by past and present clients can give you an idea of the overall idea of what you should expect with the company in question. Following the above factors will help you towards finding the best web hosting company.

Benefits Of Health Insurance Plans

If you are wondering what the benefits are to having any health insurance plans, maybe this will help you.

Health insurance premiums are sometimes expensive, especially when you have to buy them on your own. However, having health insurance is usually less expensive than when you remain uninsured. For those who do not have any insurance, you will need to pay for all of your costs with your own money. When you do have insurance, your premiums may be expensive but they do not compare to what the full cost of any major medical procedure may be.

Medical bills can make you go into debt and can make it difficult to pay your other expenses. Medical coverage for one emergency, accident, or surgery can make the insurance coverage pay for itself. The money you will save by having the health insurance is usually worth the costs of the insurance policy.

Medical problems can often come when you least expect them. Insurance coverage offers people comfort that bills will not be a big worry in a time when you need to focus on your health.

You will also more likely seek a doctor’s out if you know you have coverage to help make it less expensive. Those who do not have insurance are less likely to get prompt care for conditions that may become problematic over time or for regular screenings to make sure they are healthy.

One study found out that foregoing or delaying medical care may lead to more serious health problems, making the person who is uninsured more likely to be hospitalized for conditions that could have been avoidable. The uninsured are also less likely to receive any preventive care.

The benefits of health insurance can extend beyond medical care. Some health insurance companies provide allowances toward gym memberships. Others provide 24-hour nurse hotlines for any after-hour health questions.

Having health insurance lets you go to a primary care provider for your medical needs. Your doctor will become to know you and your medical history well, and with your insurance coverage, your doctor can give you the care that you deserve.

Getting The Best Deal On Your Mortgage

Getting the lowest mortgage rate is essential, as even a small difference in the rate can significantly increase the amount of your monthly payments. As of now, mortgage rates are at an all time low; however it still pays to shop around. The Internet allows you easily to compare rates, lenders and products, and some sites will comparison shop for you and provide you with several options.

Having a good credit score is important when applying for a home loan, as your interest rate is largely determined by that number. If practical, it is almost worth systematically working on your credit score to improve it before you apply for a mortgage. If possible, do not make another big purchase, such as a new car, at the same time. It also pays to check your credit report for errors that can affect your score, as many reports contain at least one error.

One big decision may be whether to go for a fixed rate or adjustable rate mortgage. A fixed rate mortgage means that the interest rate will not go up or down. and is perhaps better for those who are naturally cautious, or have a fixed income and cannot afford to pay more each month. An adjustable rate means that the interest rate on your mortgage changes based on the prevailing mortgage rate; it can mean much higher payments, especially on an expensive home. Because interest rates are so low anyway, a fixed rate probably makes the most sense.

Closing costs can be substantial, and one strategy is to take out a no closing cost loan. The costs are paid over a period of time, rather than all at once, making it much easier to afford to buy a home. You should also carefully study the various fees and charges that mortgage lenders assess, and make sure you have a written estimates of these costs, which lenders are required to provide. Once you have a mortgage, consider making extra payments each year, to pay off the loan more quickly. If you do that, make sure the payments are going towards the principal.

A Rehab Center As A Help For Alcoholics

Alcoholism is a silent killer that moves from person to person. It is related to incidents like domestic violence, drunk driving, medical problems, and family problems. It has been linked to medical problems like menstrual issues, birth defects, neurological problems, liver dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. So if you are an alcoholic, it is better to get help now so you can stop the cycle of dysfunction.

The best way to get help is by going to a rehab. There are many rehabs to choose from. These rehabilitation centers all do different things to tackle this disease. It is important that when you are looking for a rehab center you find one that will work with the individual and their problem in the best way that will help them.

Some of the basic means that the centers have for treating people are: a medical evaluation of the person, the severity of the disease and age of the person, and medical care needed. All of the centers follow this protocol when they are deciding what treatment programs to do for the individual. To do this, they need to get information about the person related to the age of the person, severity of the condition, and the past history of any other medical conditions. This is also important as during the program the person may go through detoxification, wherein the person may be given natural therapies and medications. Knowing their past medical history will help the medical staff to prevent any conditions that may arise from the drugs that are being given into the system to destroy the toxins.

You need to decide what type of rehab center you want to go to. These centers can be inpatient or outpatient clinics. Inpatient treatments happen for around a few hours each day when the patient reports for counseling and therapy sessions. Outpatient centers work with the individual who works during the night or day and can find time only during the late hours of the night or early hours in the morning.

So if you are an alcoholic, you should contact a rehab center today so you can help you.

Finding The Addiction Treatment Center That Is Right For You

If you or a loved one have an addiction or dependence to drugs or alcohol, getting professional help is going to be essential. Regardless of how you got started or what your particular addiction is, there are treatment plans that can help you. One of the most important aspects of finally breaking free from your addiction is to find the treatment program that is most suitable for your needs. There are many different types of addiction treatment facilities and they can vary tremendously in their approach. Before making a decision on a program that is right for you, be sure to research your options and find a program that suits your needs, budget and philosophy.

Some programs are faith based, which can be very helpful for the addict who will be able to draw strength and comfort from the principles these programs espouse; however, for the nonbeliever or someone who prefers to keep faith out of their treatment program, this might not be the optimal treatment path. Additionally, you can choose from a treatment program that relies on residential or inpatient programs, or you can choose an outpatient program. Choosing between residential and outpatient programs is often a matter of personal preference as well as your financial situation.

If you are contemplating inpatient services, you need to be able to dedicate your time to the treatment program. This means that other commitments, such as a job or family, will need to be left in the hands of someone else. Of course, there is no guarantee that an employer will hold a job for several weeks while you complete your treatment program. If outpatient services are your only option, it is important that you find a program that offers the ongoing support and services you will need.

In addition to choosing between a facility offering inpatient or outpatient services, it is important to consider the treatment centers success rates. Do they have a track record of successfully overcoming addictions like yours? What type of credentials does the facility have? Are their staff members properly trained? Other things you will want to look at include their facility. Is it well maintained and run professionally? You can tell a lot about a treatment center in how they answer your questions and their openness to revealing statistics and success rates.

A Guide To Applying For Loans

The average person does not have a lot of money in their savings account. This often makes it difficult to buy large items such as cars and vacations. Thankfully, there is a solution for this problem. Consumers who do not have the funds to buy what they want can apply for loans.

The first step in applying for loans is choosing a lender. Anyone who has a regular income and good credit should approach their bank first. Banks are usually the best lenders as they have the lowest interest rates. They also have a variety of lending options. For example, most banks offer their customers loans, overdrafts and credit cards. If a consumer has bad credit, he or she may have to use a finance company. The only downside to this is that many finance companies have interest rates which exceed 20%.

Once a borrower has chosen a lender, they will need to fill in a loan application form. During the application lenders will ask applicants about their income, address, marital status and outgoing expenses. They do this to ensure that the client is stable and can afford to make repayments on their loan.

If the loan is approved, the applicant will need to forward the lender copies of their identification, pay slip and utility bill. These documents are used to verify the information in the application form. If the documents are satisfactory, the loan will be paid out.

Some people will not qualify for loans with a bank or finance company. This usually happens when a person has bad credit or has filed for bankruptcy. In these cases, the borrower may have to get a payday loan. This is not an ideal situation as payday loans have extremely high interest rates and fees.

Getting a loan is not a small decision. Anyone who has ever had a personal loan will know that making monthly repayments can strain the finances. Due to this, people should only get loans when they have no other options. It is also important for borrowers to shop around. Those who get several quotes from lenders will generally be able to get a cheaper rate than their initial quote.

Factors To Consider When Choosing A Divorce Lawyer

A divorce is a life changing event and you thus need the services of the right legal professional to safeguard your needs and interests. You will definitely want a lawyer who is experienced with the process to ensure that you obtain the best results. The task of choosing the most suitable divorce lawyer should not be problematic especially if the following factors are considered.

1. Ask for recommendations
The first thing is to find the names of prospective lawyers to interview them about their suitability. This can effectively be done by asking for recommendations from people you trust. Such people could be your friends or family, who will most likely recommend professionals whose track record and services are of good quality. Once you have located these professionals, it would be prudent to interview them so as to know a number of things about their service provision.

2. Specialization
Specialization is an important factor that has to be checked when choosing attorneys. This is simply because the field of law is very wide and thus service providers decide to specialize in particular field only. Choosing an attorney who has specialized in family law will enable you to obtain tailor made services while dealing with a divorce application.

3. Experience
Each divorce case is unique and you need to get a lawyer who has experience in dealing with similar cases. This can be done by checking how many cases the professional has handled so far and what the results of these cases are. The lawyer you hire is also expected to be in a position of professionally responding and handling the strategy of your spouse.

4. Cost of services
The fees charged by lawyers for representation vary greatly. This variation might be attributed to how experienced the attorney is, how established the firm is or how complicated the case is. You need to be prudent while evaluating the cost of services since the cheapest service provider is not necessarily the best for you and neither is the most expensive one.

A divorce is one of the hardest events to handle in life. When choosing a divorce lawyer, make sure you choose professionals who are reliable and experienced. Consider asking your friends, especially those who have gone through a similar process, to recommend lawyers they trust.

Wind Energy As A Source Of Electricity

The importance of a reliable source of electricity is a necessity that most people who live on isolated areas consider a privilege, among other vital basic needs on the list. Areas marginally isolated from the main power grid require independent sources of energy for sustenance and basic day to day life operations. Luckily, wind is a natural resource and a gift to mankind from nature. Almost anyone around the globe can experience the benefits of wind energy, but it takes investment in a good wind turbine. Although it demands constant maintenance and attention, wind turbines are capable of generating thousands of volts enough to supply a community that shares a common grid.

Throughout history, man has been using the wind turbine foe electricity generation for quite a number of purposes. Apart from domestic utility, the energy derived from the wind has also been used for various commercial applications especially in the Scandinavian countries. Regions with vast, wide spaces utilize the privilege to operate multimillion commercial endeavors successfully. For instance, Germany owes much of its electricity supply to wind energy. A common utility grid connects residential and industrial energy consumers contributing hugely to the nation’s Gross Domestic Product.

For domestic purposes, the investment in wind energy need not be extensive. A good motor is required for steady rotation, quality strong blades and an alternator. The basic concept in the wind turbine is maintaining a constant kinetic energy around a shaft. The alternator converts the energy into electric energy which can then be stored via a transformer or cellular battery. An average turbine is capable of producing over fifteen kilowatts of electricity. Although the wind is not always constant, larger output turbines have a gearbox installed for the purposes of increasing the alternator speed in rotor turns slowly.
In order to track the wind direction and aptly capture the wind, turbine blades should always face the wind. A yaw bearing is usually installed to track the wind direction, while a tail attacked at the rear aids direction of the rotor toward the wind. Wind turbines must be fitted with a switch off mechanism in cases of extreme weather or servicing.

How To Run Your Car On Water

There are a few things many people do not know about cars. The issue of fuel is a good example. If your car uses gasoline, chances are high that you only feed it with gasoline. What you do not know, however, is that your car can run on water. Of course, this does not mean that you just take water and pour it into the gasoline tank; there are a few modifications that need to be done and you will be running your car on water.

This is possible because water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen, what chemists call H2O. This compound can be electrolyzed to form Brown’s gas (HHO), which is then added to the engines fuel intake and hence increase the efficiency of the engine. In the process, the emissions from your vehicle will be reduced, and you will be minding the environment in the process.

Of course, you will still be buying gas as usual. The advantage is that your gas will last longer than before. It might seem a little bit complicated but it is simple, really. The process releases hydrogen that enriches the normal fuel. Perhaps you have heard that hydrogen is a very explosive element, and you are afraid that you will be endangering your life and your car. You can rest assured that the hydrogen levels in Brown’s gas are non-explosive.

Before you start, enjoy the benefits of running your car on water, you need to build and install a water-burning hybrid contraption. You do not have to be a first rate mechanic to build and install this modification. There are ready-made installations that you can purchase and install on your own. The contraption is then installed under the hood of the vehicle, and once you do it, you will immediately notice the improvement in your car’s engine. This installation will go a long way in reducing your gas expenses. If you are a frequent motorist, the overall savings per month will be staggering.

Those who are crazy about cars and their modifications are even thinking about taking it a step further. There are people currently researching on how to improve the modification so that gasoline is not needed at all. They want to improve cars to run completely on water. However, as at now, the available technology only allows you to run your car partially on water, and you still need to buy a little fuel every now and then.

A Road Trip to J-Town

The thought of going to Jos, or J-Town as it is popularly known, sent shivers of excitement down my spine! I had heard a lot about this city of rocks set in Plateau State in the middle-belt region of Africa’s Nigeria. Although I and my friends were going to attend a wedding in that phenomenal city, we could not hide our joy in knowing that it was going to be an adventure in nature as well.

We had heard about how foreigners loved to visit the J-Town because the weather was cold almost all-year round. At the end of the year, in December, when the cold is at its peak, you dare not bathe or wash with water even at room temperature. All your liquids must be warm! There is no snow, of course, but it gets really cold.

We travelled from Abuja to Jos by bus. Nearing Jos the scenery was breath-taking. You look straight and below, everywhere is green. You raise your eyes and look far and you see a landscape dazzling with rocks and hills crafted by no other than God. You suck in the temperate air and you are glad to be alive. Life is beautiful! Life is green!

We saw huge cactuses growing along the road, on the left and on the right, stretching far into the fields for miles and miles ahead. We took several pictures.

As we got into J-Town, which is also the capital of Plateau, we began to see buildings and human activity. We wished we could have continued with the view of trees and hills open to the beautiful sun. But the town itself was a sight to behold. From Bukuru in Jos South to Jos Metropolis and Jos North we saw the simple life of the people. We stopped to buy some bottled water and got a lot of smiles and greetings. We saw the famous Nasco Company that produced the wafers, sweets, biscuits and cereals that children and adults alike loved.

At the wedding the cheer of the people appeared to be largely influenced by the serenity and the coolness of the city. Dance and laughter; smiles and singing. There were about five different dance groups making presentations at the ceremony. All of them were draped in different costumes that spoke of the ancient traditions of the native people. Most of the dancers had similarly colored tops and wrappers and brown beads all around their legs and ankles that rattled as they made their delectable dance moves. They swayed majestically to the sounds produced from native leather drums and steel cymbals.

The food was amazing! Apart from the English servings of rice and salad and canned drinks, we were treated to the local zobo drink. The drink is a dazzling red liquid made from natural leaves, spice and pineapple flavor. It reminded me of punch but was however refreshingly cool without being too sweet.

Then our eyes caught the craft of Jos. We had heard of the ancient Nok culture of Jos which included the making of artistic carvings by skilled artisans among their ancestors. On the wedding grounds, we saw a number of such beautifully woven carvings that stood as tall as the surrounding buildings. After the event, we strolled to where there was an art gallery, not far from the wedding hall. There we beheld an array of timeless pieces of craft from ancient Jos. Pots and vases and jugs and a host of other ornamental pieces. On the wall were several images, statutes, sculptures and carvings. We looked at them and were thrown back, in our minds, to the time the images were made. A woman bearing a child; a man was hacking away at a log of wood; women carrying pieces of cut wood on their backs; a group of men playing on drums beneath a huge tree. There was a story in each art work.

The guide in the gallery told us a folk story of how a certain ancient carver had travelled for twenty-one days in search of a particular type of mud beside a stream after Shere Hills because he wanted to make the best mud statue in his community. Such was his desire to make a name that he was ready to face the wild animals on the way. According to the folk lore, he found the stream and fetched the mud. He nonetheless encountered a hyena, a tiger and a lion. At night he climbed trees to sleep so that he would be safe from the animals. He physically fought the tiger and left with scratches on his body and lost an arm. Yet he came back victoriously with the stash of mud in his one hand and was able to make twenty mud statues that the community had never seen! The statues were acclaimed to be the best because, of course, they were made from no ordinary mud and were the price of bravery.

From the gallery, we headed to the famous Terminus where Jos Central market is located. The market was bustling with activity. All kinds of things were sold there: cloth material, shoes, bags and souvenirs for visitors to the town. In the food section, the popular garri and tuwo flour were sold as well the regular rice, beans, yams, plantains and vegetables. As we moved around, the traders beckoned on us to buy their wares. We heard the Ngas, Doka and Hausa languages freely spoken among the people. What a warm people they were! It was a thrilling experience!

The next day, on the way back, we stopped to buy lettuces, carrots, pears and potatoes – the famous produce around the Jos area. There were young people and middle-aged people along the roads selling in stalls or hawking them to travellers. We stopped to buy some fruit and potatoes. In fact, before we left for Jos, some of our other friends back home had told us not to return without bringing lettuce from J-Town. We did not dare disappoint them!

The Benefits Of Eating Seafood

There are countless benefits of eating seafood. Seafood is healthier than other types of food.

The main benefits of eating seafood are:

#1: Seafood has little fat.
Seafood has less than 2% fat. It contains much lower levels of fat than the other types of meat.

#2: Fish contains low cholesterol levels.
Eat 2 or 3 times a week fish and you can reduce the risk of heart disease and lower your cholesterol levels.

Cholesterol is not bad by itself. The problem comes when our body has too much cholesterol. Eat less food that contain saturated fats which increase your cholesterol levels.

#3: Omega-3 acids are the real deal.
Fish oil boosts the immune system. And the immune system is the real weapon against cancer cells.

Omega 3 also helps you fight heart disease. Simply by eating 300 grams of fish oil each week, patients who have suffered at least a heart attack had 29% less chances of not dying from one.

What comes from the studies is that eating seafood will prevent most common diseases.

Omega 3 is an essential nutrient. Our body can not produce it by itself. Our body is also not able to produce minerals and most vitamins. It needs to get them from these types of foods.

It’s also important to note that omega 3 fats compete with omega 6 fats. The latter is found in corn, sunflower and certain types of meats. Actually by eating products rich in omega 6 fats, you can do more harm than good.

Much higher levels of omega 6 increase the risk for many diseases. Ideally, you should eat at least 2 portions of fish each week.

#4: It contains essential and rare minerals and vitamins.
Seafood contains many vitamins of type B like for example B6 and B12. It also contains lots of minerals. The most important among them are zinc, phosphorus, iodine and potassium.

The above are some of the most important benefits of eating seafood. The conclusion: eat seafood and fish for at least a couple of times each week.

Why It Hurts When Your Gift Is Refused

She did not say anything about the gift. And it was two weeks already.

Why does it hurt so much when a spouse, partner or family member rejects your gift or your show of care? Truly, it does appear that those who are closest to you hurt you the most. Do they do it willingly or they just expect that you ought to know what kind of gift they like. Maybe they expect gifts in the way of a hug or a great show of emotion than in the one wrapped in paper and tied with a ribbon. But beyond the warmth of the hug and the kisses, you always want to give something tangible. Why wouldn’t any one understand that?

It always hurts when love is shoved back in your face. For me, it’s not about the gift; it’s about the thought behind the gift. I don’t believe a gift should be refused when it is clear that there is no ulterior motive. I may not have bought the best quality or the most expensive, but accept it. I’m not asking you to use it, if the gift is beneath you, but accept it. Smile and be excited about it genuinely. The giver already knows that it is not the best; but it is his best at the moment. He could do better if he could. Now, that gift could just be stored up in the wardrobe, displayed without use. But that’s what it is: a gift!

When it has been received, it’s up to the receiver to do whatsoever he wants with it: sell it, give it out or even throw it away in the bin, not refuse it or throw it back at the giver. The idea is that the giver goes home happy that he has done something. Of course, he knows the best stuff, he knows where quality is sold, but he doesn’t go there to buy because his pocket will embarrass him; so he buys what is neat and affordable and usable, even if for casual temporary purposes only; not spot-light usable gifts. The not-good side of refusing a gift is that there might never be a next time, for the giver to offer something. He may think about buying something but he will change his mind because he remembers the last time and doesn’t believe he should waste his time, money or good intentions. Even where he waits till he has enough money to buy the best quality, there is always that reservation that he will be refused.

Excellence and quality are good, definitely non-negotiable attributes. But when it comes to gifts, be careful. You may be too picky, too sensitive and too choosy, that you lose the essence of the gift. Most importantly, you lose the person giving the gift. When you refuse a gift, you are refusing the giver of the gift. There is no other way to put it. Nothing hurts like being unwanted.

Rejecting a gift is not the same thing as refusing a gift. To refuse something is to say that you do not want something that has been offered to you. To reject something is to decide not to use or sell something because its quality is not good enough. You can reject a gift but do not refuse it. This means, accept then reject. Take the gift in love then decide whether to use or dispose of it.

Of course, there are people you respect and you don’t want to give just anything to them. Then there are those you not only respect but who are wealthy and who use only the best of the best. How do you appreciate such people with gifts? For me, it is not a big deal. We are so quick to consider ego and status we forget what a gift means. If I love you, I give you the best of me and the best that I have at that moment. I wouldn’t steal to please you. I wouldn’t fake my life to honour you. I wouldn’t borrow or be immersed in high debts to make you happy. It is only when you don’t respect me in turn or you don’t understand my love for you, that you refuse my gift no matter how small or how inferior. If I honestly feel you would not be appreciative, I would rather express my love in non-tangible gift ways: text messages, a card, and so on. But nothing replaces the aura of a gift. But better not give than give and be spited openly for it.

I remember at my wedding, a very important personality who had been invited offered a gift that was so intangible, almost unusable by or irrelevant for a young couple that my wife and I were ridiculously shocked. We burst out laughing, knowing we would never use the gift, but we accepted it. This VIP, who came with grandeur, inspiring high expectations in us, had disappointed us, but we did not give him that feeling. He went home happy. He had done a good deed.

This is how I receive gifts: I smile effusively. I tell you thank you with such emotion as though you gave me a billion dollars. I tell you how your gift means so much to me with such genuine feelings, that you go home blessed in your soul. Do I pretend that the gift is perfect, no! I may point out any imperfections, if at all, but I don’t refuse the gift. Thereafter I do with it as I please.

More and more I understand how God feels when we refuse his offer of love and salvation. It must really hurt!

In any case, you cannot throw away family completely. You may just find the need to get the kind of gift they like or simply trump their attitude and keep being you, being nice. After all, again, it’s the thought that counts; it’s the goodness of your heart.

Importance of a Speech for Wedding

A wedding speech sets the mood on the wedding day! It can be groom wedding speech, bride wedding speech or father wedding speech it is not what they say but to see how they respond to the pressure of the momentous day that is particularly intriguing. The wedding speech of the groom’s father set things up before the groom steps forward to speak to everyone.

Father Wedding Speech
The groom’s father talks to the gathering welcoming the bride to the groom’s family. Such a cherished day as this, the new-weds can be inspired for a lifetime. So the groom’s father, must keep it short, humorous and talk in a lighter vein. Introducing the groom to the gathering on a personal level with anecdotes and childhood memories is ideal to the situation. Father wedding speech must be able to convey his experiences and the complexities of living together as husband and wife.
Most of the times these things are omitted because people feel they are not so important, but the fact is the reason that they are not, is what makes the people inspiring. Finally, it will serve the bride to feel received and blended in with the groom’s family. Now we will come to the speech for wedding.

Groom Wedding Speech
The groom will finally get the opportunity to make a wedding speech. It is only natural for him to be nervous and wear a shriveled face! He least of all expects to have a speech for wedding ready. After exchanging your vows, you will give your ‘wedding toast speech’. Although you need not prepare anything as such, but, your speech for wedding must include some notable things.
At your wedding toast speech,
• First, you must thank everyone that contributed to the success of the wedding.
• Thank your father for his welcome speech and the bride’s father if he has spoken before on the occasion.
• Thank everyone who stood by you and to people offering their time and gifts towards you and your bride.
• Now do not forget to thank the both the parents.
• If your bride is not giving a speech herself, your speech must reflect her emotions too and your collective sentiments.
• Most importantly, the groom must express his love and commitment to his newlywed wife.

Do not feel that your groom-to-bride wedding speech is such a pain. Important as it is, you must make it as informal and friendly as possible to prove that now you have turned to be a man from a boy. Impressing your bride and your in-laws and showing them what you truly are being the main thing just thinking that you are talking with your friends. Therefore, it certainly does not matter if you have not spoken in public before.
You shall never fake anything everything must come natural. Just start with something like ‘first of all I’d like to say something about my parents’ and let your instinct handle the rest. Moreover, end your speech for wedding with a toast to the people you thanked. Now you see it there is truly nothing to it.

Pros And Cons Of Electric Cars And Trucks

Small towns in America are full of cars and trucks. People who live in big cities believe that public transportation is the answer to many environmental causes, but the people who live in the larger cities fundamentally misunderstand small town life. Such misunderstandings have led to harmful programs such as the Obama administration’s cash for clunkers program. Instead of relying on more public transportation programs, people need to come up with a way to replace the cars and trucks currently in use. The solutions need to be low-cost replacements that can go as far as people can go on their current gas engines.

Electric cars and trucks are often used in city environments. The twenty-thirty mile range of these vehicles does not hinder most city driving. A 20-30 mile range is inappropriate for the more rural and small town regions. New technologies are working on ways to improve the range of such engines. Tesla Motors is working on an engine with a range of 280 miles. The expense of the car has prevented it from coming into mass production. Tesla Motors may be working with a more efficient engine, but it will have to find a way to work with other developers to help bring the costs down.

Electric cars and trucks are available, but the environmental impact may not be what people think. While it will cut the emissions from vehicles, there is one major problem with the these vehicles. The electricity to power them is still generated from the use of fossil fuels. Coal usually takes the place of gasoline. The problem the environmentalists worry about will not be solved unless an individual finds a way to power the car from places that use alternative energy sources.

There is another downside to electric cars. The cars take a longer to charge than gasoline cars to take to refill. An individual may need several hours to start the car again if the battery is completely drained. For the moment, hybrid cars with different drive trains can help an individual get around this problem. Hybrid cars can also charge the electric batteries while running on its petroleum engine.

Rooftop Devices That Change Solar Energy Into Electrical Energy

When a homeowner begins to think green, then he or she often looks at the various ways for using the sun’s power to make electric energy. Certain rooftop devices aid the process of using the sun’s energy to power a small electrical gadget. In this case, that gadget could be something that cools the air in an attic.

Homeowners have good reason to go after a method for reducing the amount of heat and moisture in an attic. Research has shown that those environmental hazards can damage the materials in a home’s uppermost section. Yet that section lies directly under the roof, a structure that receives a direct hit from sunlight. That fact underlines the reason that it pays to may good use of those natural rays.

A solar powered attic fan can suppress any amount of heat buildup. It can also battle moisture, by improving the ventilation in the area that is cooled by that same fan. Today, it is possible to convert an attic’s fan into a solar-powered vent.

That vent contains built-in photovoltaic powers. It combines that with the presence of a non-corrosive, polymeric exhaust screen. Thus it cools the air and reduces the level of moisture, without causing a big spike in a home’s electric bills.

Such devices are easy to install, because the installer does not have to struggle with a single inch of wiring. Moreover, each of them makes its own electrical energy; it does not have to consume a single electron from a home’s circuitry. It is durable and designed to match with any of the shapes that are currently used in various rooftops. It can be hooked up to another environmentally friendly and wallet conscious device, a panel that can serve as a vent’s protection from the dual threats of wind and foreign objects.

A kit can be used to convert any of the conventional vents into one that gets powered by sunlight. Such a conversion can be used to boost the performance of existing vents. At the same time, it can transform a noisy component into a quiet and low cost way for keeping an attic’s air cool and dry.

How To Build Muscles

Muscle is one tissue. Muscle cells contain protein filaments and primarily functions as a source of power. Appearance of a human as well built, medium or slim is due to presence of varying quantity muscles in the body. Although protein is a constituent of food which helps build muscles in our body, consumption of only protein doesn’t contribute to building of muscles. Building of muscles requires consumption of a well balanced diet and regular exercise. While a well balanced diet consists of ideal combination of protein, fat and carbohydrate that ensures adequate supply of vitamins and minerals to the body for its normal functioning, exercise is also required to promote physical growth and strength, mental strength, will power and self control for harmonious development of the whole body system.

Role of balanced food in developing muscles

Right food could work wonders. Generically, a complete and healthy food or diet is appropriate combination of protein, carbohydrate and fat. If our food is well balanced, then daily requirement of vitamins and minerals is automatically met with. For developing a muscular body, availability of adequate first class protein (protein having high biological value) in the diet is important. Along with adequate protein, enough carbohydrates and fats are also necessary to produce the required calories to generate required energy for sparing protein for development of muscles.


The daily requirement of protein is 0.5 gm of first class protein per Kg of body weight. For vegetarians this requirement is double. Vegetarians should eat variety of food items in combination to ensure required ingestion of protein. First class protein is the one obtained from sources like milk, eggs, meat, cheese and dairy products, fish, sea foods, poultry, pork etc. whose amino acid profile expresses the presence of all essential amino acids. When all the essential amino acids are present in the food item, then the biological value of that protein is high and therefore these food items are called first class proteins. Protein obtained from vegetable sources does not contain all the essential amino acids and therefore to ensure supply of all essential amino acids one should consume variety of vegetarian food in combination. Each gram protein produces 4 calories.


Almost all types of foods contain carbohydrates. Principal function of carbohydrate in the body is to produce energy. Each gram carbohydrate produces 4 calories


Fat is used in our diets in the form of cooking oil and butter. Dry fruits are also contain fat. Fat is important constituent of diet which imparts palatability to the food and is important source of energy. Each gram of fat produces 9 calories.


Vitamins are present in all foods to greater or lesser extent. A well balanced diet ensures adequate intake of required vitamins. Vitamins take part in digestion of food and its metabolism so that the digested food is properly utilized. Deficiency of vitamins results in specific deficiency disease. It is not possible to sustain life in the absence of essential vitamins. We must obtain them from a well planned diet or dietary supplements.


The mineral needed by the body in substantial amounts are calcium, phosphorous, iron, sulphur, magnesium, sodium, potassium and chlorine. In addition to that trace minerals like iodine, copper, cobalt, manganese, zinc, selenium, silicon, fluorine and some others are also needed in trace amount. Minerals are required for the efficient functioning of the cells of body.

Development of muscles and diet

When the objective is to increase the mass of muscles in the body, adequate supply of all the components of a complete diet is imperative. The basic idea is to direct the protein to the site where muscle building is required. This can be achieve by taking protein in adequate quantities along with carbohydrate and fat to meet the requirement of energy for day to day activities and spare protein for muscle development.

Ideally 50 % of energy should come from carbohydrates, 20% from fats and 30% from proteins. Maintenance of this ideal ratio is imperative to spare protein for growth. Calorie is the unit by which the energy is measured. Requirement of calories for people with different stature and age groups are different, change from males to females and depend on the level of activity. On average 1300-1500 calories are needed on resting basis. Very light physical activity requires 1.5 times the resting calories, light physical activity requires 2.5 times the resting calories, moderate physical activity requires 5.5 the resting calories, heavy physical activity needs 7 times the resting calories. On average young men require 1.6 times the resting calories and young women require 1.55 times the resting calories.


Regular exercise when taken properly enhances the utilization of food by the body, which enhances health, fitness and stature. A healthy person usually expresses a well built physique and a radiant glow. Regular exercise improves flow of blood through out the body and increases the mass of muscles, enhances the efficiency of heart and by offering resistance to fatigue, also improves overall efficiency of body and mind.

Exercise should be performed in such a way that it involves all the muscles of the body in a natural way. Walking is one such exercise. But it is very gentle exercise and one must walk several kilometers briskly to call it an exercise. Therefore, for building muscles of the body one should opt for other form of exercises, like static, isometric, dynamic and aerobic exercises, or one should take a reference from a gymnasium or join the one.

One should not perform vigorous exercises for one and a half hour after eating and immediately before meals. If you get tired while exercising or after completing exercising, then immediately stop the exercise. The objective of exercise is to feel refreshed and relaxed and not tired.

Ideally one should start with very light exercise and then increase the efforts gradually in several phases. One should aim at a comfortable sense of tiredness. Watch your pulse rate when you are taking exercise. At rest beats are 70 to 80 per minute. This rate increases during exercise. The pulse can go up to 200 beats per minute or more during vigorous exercise. Aim should be to exercise at about two-thirds of maximum capacity. So to say, the pulse should be about 130 per minute during and just after exercise. Overexertion should always be avoided and your pulse should never go above 190 minus your age per minute.

Keeping in mind these concepts, one can plan a suitable regimen of diet and exercise for development of muscles in the body.

An Introduction To Echinacea

Echinacea is a wildflower found and harvested in North America. Although the wild variety is used in herbal medicine, herbal supplements are derived from cultivated plants of Echinacea. It is commonly known as Coneflower (Purple) and bears a botanical names of Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida, Echinacea purpurea. The parts of the Echinacea plant for use in treating diseases are picked up during the flowering growth phase. Its root and or shoot are of value in preparing herbal medicine.

It has been proved clinically that Echinacea modulates the immune system. The modulated immune system is able to identify and destroy the microorganism responsible for causing diseases. If the immune system works efficiently, then there are less chances of getting trapped into colds, coughs, flues and other infections. Phagocytosis is a phenomenon by which white blood cells and lymphocytes eat away the invading microorganism. Echinacea is shown to increase phagocytosis by 20-40%. Echinacea enhances the level of interferon and other important compound of immune system.

Hyaluronidase is an enzyme secreted by microorganisms which helps them to invade healthy cells in a wound in the human body. It is shown that Echinacea neutralizes the action of this enzyme and prevents infections in the wound.

Traditionally Echinacea is used orally for the treatment of viruses and bacteria, but now it is also used for treating external wounds because it is learned that it reduces inflammation and enhances the growth of healthy tissues in the wound.

Properties of Echinacea are Antiseptic, Immune System Stimulating, mild antibiotic, bacteriostatic, antiviral, antifungal.

Active ingredients of Echinacea are polysaccharides, glycoproteins, alkamides, volatile oils, and flavonoids.

How to use Echinacea?

Echinacea may be available as dried root and or herb, standard extracts (fresh or tincture), juice of root and or the herb, extracted powder of root and or herb.

For children, advice of a herbal specialist should be obtained and products used should be free from alcohol.

Adult can take tea made from 2 grams dried root and or herb, or 2 to 3 ml. of standard tincture extract, or 1 to 3 ml of Tincture (1:5) 6 to 9 ml of expressed juice, or300 mg of extracted powder or 0.75 ml of stabilized fresh extract. The recommended dose should be taken at two hours interval on the first day and then three times daily until the symptoms disappear and for not more than 7 to 10 days. This regimen is useful stimulating the immune system during colds, coughs, flu, fungal infections due to yeast and infection of bladder. Echinacea is helpful in reducing the period of sufferings in the incidences of sore throats, ear and eye infections.

Creams and ointments should be applied on wounds as required

Although use of herbal medicine is relatively free from adverse effects, plant may contain active ingredient which may precipitate adverse reactions and/or interact with other herbal supplements or medicine or food. Therefore, medicine in any form should always be consumed under supervision of a qualified professional. Patients allergic to plants and trees in general, should take Echinacea under medical supervision.

As is the case with any medicine, in rare cases, echinacea can precipitate allergic events, which may be in the form of a minor rash or may be an acute anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is a severe reactive event which may be fatal and is determined by tightening of throat muscles, severe difficulty in breathing, and onset of fainting. Asthmatics and patients suffering from different types of allergies are prone to suffer from some or other adverse reactions due to Echinacea.

Patients suffering from multiple sclerosis, autoimmune diseases, liver disorders, leukemia, connective tissue disorders, diabetes, tuberculosis, HIV or AIDS and patients undergoing organ transplants should not take Echinacea. It is advisable to avoid use of Echinacea during pregnancy and breastfeeding

Oral consumption of Echinacea may cause temporary numbing and tingling of the tongue.

An Introduction To Antibiotics

Anti means against and bio means life. An antibiotic is a semi synthetic or synthetic substance which inhibits the growth of micro-organisms, like bacteria, fungi, or protozoa.
Earlier antibiotic was defined as an agent with biological activity against living organisms. Nowadays, antibiotics are defined as substances possessing anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, or anti-parasitical activity. Antibacterial, antimicrobial and antibiotic are now used synonymously and have capability to kill the organisms causing infections or slow down their growth. Depending upon the causative organisms of various infectious diseases, antibiotic(s) are classified antibacterial, antifungal antiprotozoal and antiviral. Antibiotics are also classified according to the spectrum of their activity. Broad spectrum antibiotics have effect on vide variety of microorganisms, while narrow spectrum antibiotics acts on a few microorganisms. Another classification of antibiotics is based on their mode of action. Antibiotics which cause the death of causative organisms are called bactericidal while those inhibiting the growth of microorganisms are known as bacteriostatic antibiotics.

An ideal antibiotic has selective toxicity (i.e. the drug is harmful to disease causing microorganisms with little/no adverse effects on patients). The lesser is selective the drug, the more are the possibilities and severity of the occurrence of the adverse effects. Adverse effects occur in the form of allergic reactions (allergic reactions can range from rashes to anaphylaxis), hypersensitivity to the drug, cross-sensitivity, toxic reactions at high doses, their interactions with food and drugs, and changes in normal intestinal flora.

Use of Antibiotics can reduce or kills the microorganisms constituting normal intestinal flora with the occurrence of resistant bacteria which results in super infections.
Some microorganisms have inherent resistance to wards particular antibiotic while some can acquire resistance. If the resistant microorganisms are suspected than more than one antibiotic are used to treat the infection.
When antibiotics do not act on microorganisms then it is said that microorganism is resistant to that antibiotic, which can be inherent (i.e. the natural resistance where the causative microorganisms were never sensitive to the antibiotic) and acquired resistance develops with prolonged use of low doses of an antibiotic.

There is also a concept of cross-resistance. Cross-resistance is the resistance developed by microorganisms to wards more than one antibiotic, i.e. if microorganism is resistant to a particular class of antibiotic, then the same microorganism would be resistant to another type of antibiotic belonging to the same class.
Penicillin was the first antibiotic to be discovered is historically significant because that was the first antibiotic effective against serious infections. Penicillins are used in the modern era also in the form of penicillinase resistant Penicillin, natural penicillins, Penicillin G, (benzylpenicillin), Penicillin V etc., although microorganisms are now resistant to it. Penicillin is usually used by injection. Tablets and capsules of penicillins are not available. Thereafter many researches have given very useful oral antimicrobial drugs like sulphonamides, tetracyclines, ampicillin, bcampicillin, amoxicillin, macrolide compounds (erythromycin, clindamycin, azithromycin), streptomycin, ethambutol, rifampicin, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, metronidazole, tinidazole ornidazole, griseofulvin, fluconazole, ketoconazole, and many more which are successfully used to treat various types of infections due to bacteria, protozoa and fungus. New generation of antimicrobials have broader spectrum of activity and comparatively lesser adverse effects.

Antibiotics are considered as lifesaving drugs. Alexander Fleming was the discoverer of penicillin. It was the most efficacious lifesaving drug of the world. He was awarded Nobel Prize for his work on antibiotics and bacteriology. He also developed the methods for testing the antibiotics. His work was so concrete that even modern manufacturers of antibiotic use the similar techniques.

Introduction To Science Of Dietetics

While the subject of dietetics is meant for requirements of students and practitioners of medicine, it is also useful to all those who desire to acquire some knowledge about the foods we eat daily and the nutrition it provides. With number of patented and proprietary foods available in the market at considerably higher prices, the knowledge of the subject of dietetics will certainly enable readers to make the right choices and derive value for money spent on branded food items. Moreover, the incidences of cardiovascular diseases and diabetics are also in increase in the younger generation and from this point of view as well, the knowledge of dietetics will help to reduce the occurrences of these types diseases as they are lifestyle driven disorders.

We consume food or in scientific term diet to survive and get energy for carrying out our day to day activities. The principle constituents of diet are carbohydrate, fat and proteins. Apart from these, a well balanced diet also should contain vitamins, minerals and fibers. Our body produces required energy in the form of calories generated by the food that we eat. Each gram of protein or carbohydrate produces 4 calories, while one gram of fat produces 9 calories.
Proteins are the building blocks of our body and they repair the wear and tear in the body. Minimum daily requirement of protein is 0.5 gm of first class protein per Kg of body weight. First class protein has high biological value (source being animal such as meat, milk, eggs etc). For vegetarians this requirement is 1.0 gm of protein per Kg of body weight. Vegetarians should always eat variety foods in combination to ensure optimum supply of required protein. Requirement of protein for pregnant ladies, lactating mothers and growing children is double the requirement for normal persons.

Ideally 50 % of energy should come from carbohydrates, 20% from fats and 30% from proteins. Maintenance of this ideal ratio is imperative to spare protein for growth and or repairs of body due to wear and tear.
Requirement of calories for people with different stature and age groups are different, change from males to females and depend on the level of activity of the person. On average 1300-1500 calories are needed on resting basis. Very light physical activity requires 1.5 times the resting calories, light physical activity requires 2.5 times the resting calories, moderate physical activity requires 5.5 the resting calories, heavy physical activity needs 7 times the resting calories. On average young men require 1.6 times the resting calories and young women require 1.55 times the resting calories.

Foods rich in carbohydrates are cereals, grains, potatoes, fruits and vegetables etc. Protein rich foods are milk and dairy products, meat, eggs, fish and sea foods, legumes and beans etc. Foods rich in fats are dairy products (excluding fat free products or low fat products), dry fruits, cooking oils, butter, meat, fish and sea foods etc.
Apart from protein, fat and carbohydrate, our body also requires vitamins and minerals. Vitamins content of fruits and green vegetables, dairy products, dry fruits and sea foods are enough to take care of our daily requirements. Milk, vegetables, cereals, grains are also good sources of minerals that our body require.
A detailed knowledge in the science of dietetics enables to lead a healthy lifestyle by prevention of lifestyle related diseases from occurring.

An Introduction To Bioinformatics

According to oxford English dictionary (Molecular) bio-informatics: bioinformatics is conceptualising biology in terms of molecules (in the sense of physical chemistry) and applying”informatics techniques” (derived from disciplines such as applied maths, computer science and statistics) to understand and organize the information associated with these molecules, on a large scale. In short, bioinformatics is a management information system for molecular biology and has many practical applications.

Bioinformatics is computational and experimental techniques which model the flow of genetic, metabolic, and regulatory information of living beings and helps to understand their unique properties. Bioinformatics is new and evolving science integrated with mathematical and statistical techniques, computer science, engineering, bioengineering, and biological sciences.

The objective of Bioinformatics is to develop and improves on the ways in which the biological data are stored, retrieved, organized and analyzed. Developing software tools to create useful biological information is a major activity of bioinformatics.

Bioinformatics is important part of several branches of biology. Techniques of imaging and signal processing are integral part of molecular biology and bioinformatics to extract useful information from large amounts of raw data. Sequencing, annotation and mutation of genomes are carried out using these techniques. It helps the processes of gene ontology and exploration of literature on biology to organize and retrieve biological information. They are useful in analyzing, expressing and regulating the gene and protein.

Comparisons of genetic and genomic data become easier to understand the concept of evolution in the field of molecular biology. Parts of system biology like biological pathways can be analyzed and catalogued using bioinformatics techniques. It helps in the study of simulation and modeling of DNA, RNA, and protein structures and molecular interactions.

Biological data are stored and organized using databases and information systems and analyzed at much faster rate using sophisticated machines. Techniques of image processing and simulation, artificial intelligence, soft computing and data mining are used to analyze biological data using information theory, system theory, discrete mathematics, control theory. Bioinformatics employs software tools and technologies like C, C++, C#, Java, Perl, XML, Python, SQL, R, CUDA, Spreadsheet applications, MATLAB and BLAST.

Open source software packages like Bioconductor, Biopython, BioJava, Bioclipse, BioRuby, BioPerl, workbench, EMBOSS Taverna and UGENE are used in the field of bioinformatics. A non-profit Open Bioinformatics Foundation is formed to encourage the tradition of creating and maintaining open source applications.

SOAP- and REST-based applications are the web based services in the field of bioinformatics. These applications run in a server which can be accessed from any part of the world allowing the user to be free from dealing with maintenance costs of software and databases.

The practical applications of bioinformatics are in the field of criminology, Human Resource management, Management of sanctuaries of birds and animals, agriculture, fermentation and drug industries, food and bio technologies, etc. for increasing the productivity and efficiency and reducing the costs. In the field of microbiology these techniques is immensely useful in the study of process of development of resistance by bacteria towards antibiotics and developing better antibiotics.

Bioinformatics also finds its application in the field of genetic engineering enabling development of useful traits in the microorganisms and plants for increasing the production of desired materials. For example, a team at Houston’s Rice University has developed genetically engineered strain of yeast to produce resveratrol in a two-step process which will help the production of biobeer rich in resveratrol. Resveratrol is an antioxidant (found in grapes) useful for cancer and cardiac patients.

It seems possible that developments in the field of bioinformatics will enable better quality of life at a reduced cost in the days to come.

An Introduction To Biochemistry

Biochemistry is the science of chemical processes taking place within living organisms and deals with the structure and function of protein, carbohydrate, lipid and nucleic acid present in/synthesized by living organism.

Biochemistry is also sometimes called biological chemistry, in which information related to biochemical signaling and the cell metabolism that generates the energy are studied. Biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life. The study of the chemistry pertaining to biological processes and the production of biologically active substances are examples of biochemistry.

Biochemistry has close relation to molecular biology, in which the information stored in DNA which triggers the mechanism of life is studied.

Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids are the determinants of the structure of the living cells and carry out various functions that are required for existence of the cell. The existence of a cell also dependent upon the smaller molecules and chemical ions, such as metal ions, which can be inorganic in nature, which enables synthesis of proteins from the interaction of metal ion, water and amino acids.

Only six elements from total 92 elements of periodic table, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, calcium, and phosphorus compose almost 99% of our body. Apart from these six major elements, the human body requires smaller quantity of abut 18 additional trace elements (minerals).


Protein, carbohydrate, lipid and nucleic acid are the four major classes of molecules in biochemistry and are known as biomelecules. Biological molecules may be polymers and monomers. Polymers are the small micromolecules (monomers) which are linked with each other to form large macromolecules, which are called polymers. Various macromolecules combine to form large complex molecules required for biological processes. DNA, RNA, protein and carbohydrate are the examples of macromolecules.


Monosaccharides (monomers) combine to form carbohydrate. Examples of monosaccharides are glucose fructose and deoxyribose.

Carbohydrates are useful for producing and storing energy as well as for storing genetic information. Sugars fall under the class of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are the largest known biomolecules on the Earth. They are important factors in interactions and communications amongst cells.

Glucose and Fructose

Glucose and Fructose are the simplest types of carbohydrate and they are monosaccharides. Fructose is constituent of fruits which is responsible for their sweet taste.


Two monosaccharides combine to form a disaccharide. A well-known disaccharide is sucrose (ordinary sugar, called table sugar or cane sugar).

Sucrose consists of a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule joined together.

Another example of disaccharide is lactose, which combine one glucose and a galactose molecule.

Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides

Oligosaccharide (oligo means few) are the result of combination of few (three to six) monosaccharides.


Polysaccharides are formed by combination of several monosaccharides. They either can be linear chained Polysaccharides, or they can be branched Polysaccharides. Most familiar polysaccharides are cellulose and glycogen, containing repeating glucose monomers.


Cellulose is a polymer of β-D-glucose and synthesized by plants and it is the vital component of their structure. Humans cannot synthesize or digest cellulose.


Glycogen is carbohydrate found in humans and animals which they use it for energy storage. Carbohydrate is an important source of energy for humans and animals

Glucose-the main source of energy

Glucose is the main source of energy for most living beings. Polysaccharides break down to their constituent monomers. Disaccharides such as lactose or sucrose break down into their two constituents monosaccharides. Glucose undergoes metabolism through the process of glycolyis to produce energy.


Constituents of lipids are triglycerides and fatty acids. Fatty acids are considered as monomer constituents of lipids. Lipids are water insoluble compounds of biological origin such as, fatty acids, phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids, and terpenoids (e.g., retinoids and steroids). Lipids may be linear aliphatic molecules or may have a ring structures. Aromatic lipids are also found in nature. Lipids are also classified as flexible and rigid lipids.

Lipids, such as phospholipids, are constituents of several pharmaceutical products, either as co-solubilisers (in parenteral infusions) or as a carrier of drug components (such as in a liposome or transfersome).

Our diet contains Lipids and essentially it is the important source of energy for us. All cooking medium, milk and milk products like butter, cheese, ghee etc. contain fats. Vegetable oils contain various polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and medium chain triglycerides (MCT) which plays important role in cholesterol metabolism and energy production. By the process of digestion in the presence of bile enzymes secreted by liver, lipids present in the foods undergo digestion within the body. The final degradation products of fats and lipids which are absorbed by the intestine are fatty acids and glycerol.


Proteins are made of very large molecules (macro-biopolymers) synthesized from monomers known as amino acids. There are 20 standard amino acids out of which eight are essential for human beings. Different amino acids combine to form peptide, polypeptide and finally the protein.

Nucleic acids

DNA is synthesized from various Nucleic acids. DNA is a very important substance which stores genetic information. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are the most common nucleic acids. Nucleotides are the monomers of nucleic acids. Adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil are the most common nucleotides.

Thus biochemistry offers the scope of studying the very vital functions of the living beings on the earth. Biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology combined together is a promising base for a bright future in the field of clinical diagnostics, pharmaceutical industries, industrial and agricultural (food and herbal plants), production of enzymes and drugs, fermentation industry, food and dairy industry.

In future the biochemistry will enhance the food security, health, industrial production and environmental management.

Structured Annuity Settlement

A structured annuity settlement is used to make weekly, monthly or yearly payments for insurance, mortgage or buying any material on lease.

The dealing is done between the insurance company and the person who wants to avail the insurance services. The company will present its different packages that a person can attain; these insurance packages might be settled down between both the parties on the payment schedule of weekly basis, monthly basis or yearly basis. It depends upon the packages provided by the companies to their clients and in occasions, depending upon the situations, companies do customize their packages for their clients depending upon their requirements. Especially for the corporate customers the insurance packages are customized as each corporate entity has its own set of requirements for its employees, and they need to check out the availability of finance before providing any facilitation to the employees.

Moreover, when there is a deal on the home mortgages, a company or bank purchases a home from the vendor. Later on the deal is done between the client who wants to purchase that similar home on monthly or yearly payments and the company who purchases the home from the seller. The convenience and business opportunities created for both parties are that, one can purchase a home say in 10 – 20 years and the other party can get its margins on allowing the customer to pay on monthly or yearly basis. Different sorts of factors are considered in these types of dealings so the deal remains beneficial for both the parties.

You may purchase a car, home furniture, laptop, cell phone or anything you need on a structured annuity settlement. Usually, you do not have the enough budget to purchase a certain thing on one time payment but you are badly in need of that thing. Say you are in need of a car but don’t have the finances to purchase a private car. Or you are looking for a new furniture for your home or your office but don’t have sufficient budget to do so. You may need to interact with the bank and ask them for monthly lease payments. It will raise the price of the material a bit as the company is providing you an item on lease and moreover they want to have their margins in the deal but you will get the required items within the specific time that is when you actually need them.

Funny Jokes Are Great To Share

Have you ever been at a party or other social activity and wished you had the perfect joke to break the ice? There is something about a well-timed joke that can help put everyone at ease. Of course, it is important to have the right type of jokes so that nobody is offended; that’s certainly the last thing you would want to do. Humor is a great way to get people a little more relaxed and make a notable statement and can often lead to new friendships. After all, if you can inject a bit of humor into the situation, you not only have the perfect opportunity to bring a little moment of happiness into people’s lives, but you will also be seen as someone enjoyable to be around.

Of course, an important part of bringing levity and humor into any situation is knowing the ideal funny jokes that will illicit the response you want. While there are certainly plenty of fun, clean jokes that everyone from young kids to grandma can share with a variety of different people, it is also important to use a bit of discretion when choosing the jokes you tell. Not all situations are appropriate for all types of jokes and some people might be offended if you choose jokes that push their boundaries for decency or acceptable content. When in a situation where there is a mixture of ages and people of different backgrounds, it is important to keep your jokes appropriate for the entire audience.

Most people are surprised to find that they can browse the internet and find a plethora of funny jokes. Regardless of the category or theme, funny jokes are in abundance. Find some great jokes to keep in your repertoire and you’ll quickly discover that you can have a joke capable of making people laugh and bringing enjoyment to their day.

One of the best ways to utilize your acquisition of funny jokes is to make sure that you always keep a fresh supply on hand. Many times, people learn a few jokes and then they keep repeating these jokes whenever they want to create a laugh or lighten a situation. Jokes can be an excellent way to bring happiness, but they need to be updated from time to time in order to ensure you always have something fresh to share with family and friends.

No matter what type of funny jokes you prefer, it can take a little practice to get the timing and delivery method just right. If you’ve ever had someone tell you a joke and it just doesn’t seem to hit home, you have probably experienced what it is like to be told a joke by someone who doesn’t know the importance of proper delivery. Practice telling your funny jokes with family and friends and experiment with different delivery methods. Once you start getting a feeling for what makes people laugh, you’ll be able to quickly learn new jokes and ensure they get the humorous response you want to achieve.

The World Of Celebrity News Gossip

A celebrity’s life is always packed up if not with things that make them richer, its things that make them more miserable or more controversial, things that make them the world’s sweetheart or it might be people poking their noses where they are not wanted. Well keeping up with their busy schedules and activities may be a great hustle for most people were it not for celebrity news gossip that make it so convenient and easy to know what is going on.

From musicians to actresses and actors, current leaders or past leaders, corporates to investors, church leaders and the cult encompassed individuals the celebrity list is endless and keeping up with the most recent celebrity news gossip could not be a walk in the park were it not for several tabloids and magazines that keep you up to date with everything that has happened.

Who performed where and when, what they wore, what their hair looked like, their marriages or relationships, who sired whose child and what they did to celebrate several important days of their lives are some of the things we look for with several tabloids breaking it down into certain categories for ease of use. The US weekly is a site that gives you the daily updates of what your favourite celebrity was up to. is another site that keeps you on your best when it comes to celebrity news gossip. We also get to know what they said, how they spent their leisure time, where they spent their time and who shopped at a certain store., eonline, and also fall into the category of celebrity news gossip providers.

If Hollywood is what soothes your curiosity then is your savior and if black celebrities are what you are looking for, then worry not for you will get what you are looking for at the click of a button. In addition to tabloids and magazines, blogs have joined the list of places where to find celebrity news gossip. The celebrity news blog is an example that features scandals, appearances, videos, music and speeches of different celebrities.

As we view and review that website which ranked the best and worst dressed celebrities or that advocated a certain movie or music, bloggers, writers and tabloids are busy earning a living. They feed us with the celebrity news and gossip and we generously help them put food on the table. It’s a diverse field with several thousands of people benefiting directly or indirectly.

If you have fallen behind on what your president or leader has been up to, you only have yourself to blame. The news are readily available even on you tube and several online magazines. Use Google to find you what you want to know or look up the Yahoo home page to see what is trending at different hours. Information is power and you do not have to be left out as your friends update each other on such issues. You just need to find that tabloid that will be your new best friend.

The Civil Rights Movement: What It Was, And What It Accomplished

The civil rights movement in the United States was was for the purpose of bringing equal rights and equal opportunities to African-Americans. It included legal cases, sit-ins, protests, and other activities.

The first legal case associated with the civil rights movement was Brown v. the Board of Education. Taking place in Topeka, Kansas, parents sued the Board of Education for the right to send their children to the schools of their choice. The result of the case was Topeka could no longer segregate its elementary schools on the basis of race after the court’s decision in 1954.

A year later, Rosa Parks was responsible for the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott. While African-Americans were required to give up their seats on buses when the seats were needed for White passengers, Mrs. Parks refused to do this. The courage shown by this average working woman led Mrs. Parks to become known as one of the most influential people in the civil rights movement.

1957 marked the desegregation of Little Rock High School. The National Guard was called by the Arkansas governor in an attempt to prevent African-American students from entering the school. As desegregation had already been established by the courts, President Dwight Eisenhower intervened.

Protesters, Freedom Riders, and others who participated in nonviolent activities were subject to arrest, beatings, and even death. One of the many people who lost their lives in the civil rights movement was a 39-year-old housewife named Viola Liuzzo. She was shot to death in Alabama by members of the Ku Klux Klan.

The 1963 March on Washington was the location of the famous “I Have A Dream” speech by Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. More than 200,000 demonstrators protested the need for civil rights laws, fairness and equality in employment and housing, equal opportunities in education, and other issues.

In 1964, the Civil Rights Act was signed by President Lyndon Johnson. It had originally been proposed by President John F. Kennedy. Discrimination in public facilities and employment was banned by this Act.

The Voting Rights Act was signed by President Lyndon Johnson in 1965. This did not necessarily make it easy for African-Americans to vote. In some areas, primarily in the South, they continued to face difficulties when exercising their legal right to vote. When individuals protested these difficulties by marching from Selma to Montgomery, they were on the receiving end of violence.

Many Americans participated in the civil rights movement. Men, women, and children of all backgrounds and races took a stand in the name of equal rights, equal opportunities, and freedom. Ministers, politicians, school children, and average citizens played a vital role in this important part of American history.

However, the fullness of Rev. King’s Dream has not yet been realized. While discrimination is against the law throughout the United States, prejudice continues. All Americans today should look at the courage of everyone who participated in the civil rights movement, and continue taking a stand against bigotry in their own homes, schools, and communities.

Finding Free Music Downloads

There are many places online that offers free music downloads, but not all services are created equal. There are a few things you should know about free music downloads, such as how to find them and how to look for the right service to download music from, as well as a few other things. Continue reading the rest of this article to find out more about free music downloads.

How To Find Free Music Downloads
Finding free music downloads is easy to do. All you have to do is perform a search for music downloads that are free, and you will be able to find many services that allow you to download music for free. However, not all services are created equal, and this is why it is important to know how to choose the right one.

Choosing The Right Service
First, you want to choose to download music from a company that provides you with free music downloads that are 100% legal. The last thing you want to do is to use a service that does not have any rights to the songs that they allow you to download.

Also, some companies will say they offer free downloads, but sometimes they mean that only a few songs are for free and then sooner or later you have to pay for them. This is why it is a good idea to read the terms of a website, as this is where you will find out whether or not you have to pay for music at some point.

You will want to choose to use a service that has many different songs for you to choose from. Some companies have a very small selection of songs for you to download, while some companies have millions of songs to download. You will want to use a service that offers you millions of songs you can download for free, as well as a company that makes it easy for you to find songs to download.

Some companies may only allow you to download a certain number of songs in a given time period, while some companies will allow you unlimited free music downloads. Every company is different, therefore you will want to read the rules of a website before you join them.

Once you have found a service that offers free music downloads, then all you need to do is signup for an account, which should be free, and then you will be able to download music.

How Does Downloading Free Music Works
After you have signed up for an account with a website that provides free music downloads, then all you need to do is search for music that interests you. Once you have found a song, then you download it to your device, whether it is your computer, phone, music player and so forth. It is as simple as that, but remember that you will want to choose the right company to join, because sometimes free does not mean free and you might end up paying for downloads sooner or later.

The Benefits Of Meditation

Meditation is a mental and physical activity performed by an individual with the purpose of getting detachment from thoughts and feelings to attain full awareness and peace of mind.

Meditation does not cost anything but is valuable in obtaining inner peace from within and it can be practiced anywhere, anytime and by everybody. Everyone undergoes certain phases in their lives in which negative energy is predominant. If such situations are not resolved in time, then they may deteriorate quality of life. Meditation helps to address to such situations by attaining peaceful state of mind by normalizing the physiological processes of the body, which allows rational analysis of unfavorable situation. Meditation allows one to take hold of the situation because of generation of positive energy and one is able to see the situation in its perspective view.

Virtually all religions include concepts of meditation, although some do not use the term meditation to define the meditative practices they recommend or follow. Meditation is not always a religious practice. It is a way of living naturally, happily and without suffering from lifestyle related diseases. Meditation is increasingly employed as treatment for various types of lifestyle related diseases.

To have a feel of meditation, just have a view of sunset and make an effort to experience the calm and inner joy. Your mind will become clear and you will experience peace.

Ultimate objective of meditation is to just become aware, (not judge or think, just being aware), to attain peace, and live each moment as it unfolds.

What happens during meditation?

Meditation is classic relaxation procedure. Many important physiological changes take place during meditative state, like conservation of your energy, removal of stress, normalization of your respiration, blood pressure, heart rate, and revitalization of the whole system. As you keep on practicing meditation, you will experience that your mind becomes uncluttered and detached. Negative energy lying in your system is replaced by positive energy. As you advance further in meditating, you will be able to develop your instinct and rise to causal and super-causal sphere. During advanced practice of meditation, one is able to rise beyond the physical, mental and emotional state. This is a stage beyond time, space and emotion. At this stage the stress does not exist. After you have attained such a stage of meditating, your responses to worldly events are not spontaneous but you will choose an appropriate response to an event. The only thing you can do at this stage is be happy and make others happy.

Meditative techniques allow mind to visualize the functions of the body experiencing panic events. After you have identified and located the disorder in your body, meditation will correct the disorder by providing adequate supply of blood to the location in question, normalizing the rate of heart, and enhancing immune response. Meditation is thus helpful in managing panic events to bring back order to mind and body.

Meditation should become part of daily routine of today’s fast lifestyle, therefore, every one should learn the technique of meditation. Many are overworking due to competitive pressure of either study or profession. As a result there is a development of stress and associated risks of development of lifestyle related diseases such as anxiety and depression, hypertension, diabetes, cardiac disorders, etc. Cortisol is a hormone which is released when one is exposed to stressful conditions. It is documented that meditation reduces the concentration of cortisol in the blood of the person who is meditating. Reduction in the concentration of cortisol results in relief from stress, feeling of well-being and overall happiness. Meditation also increases creative ability and ability to solve problems. All styles of meditation practice the world over are helpful for attaining peace of mind and improved health.

Meditation normalizes blood pressure, rate of heart and respiration in short time. Meditation increases the production of nitric oxide which is a vasodilator and it lowers blood pressure. Meditation also helps to normalize the chemistry blood for maintaining a normal blood pressure. Because of this therapeutic action of meditation, many commercial branded courses are marketed, such as transcendental meditation for treatment of hypertension, cardiac disorders, anxiety and depression. Another such package offered is Vipassana Meditation, although this is also offered free of cost or at nominal cost by many organizations.

Many doctors recommend practice of meditation along with the medicines they prescribe for the treatment of depression. It is documented that meditation corrects the imbalance of chemistry of the mind and blood. Meditation is a process where mind influence the body to attain order and harmony.

Meditation has its effects at physical level, mental level and spiritual level and hence offers excellent healing effects.

Breathing in a rhythmus way is primary requirement of meditation and hence it enhances the efficiency of lungs and as a result more oxygen is taken up by blood which increases overall efficiency of the body and the immune system as well. Thus meditation also helps the patients of asthma and bronchitis.

At spiritual level meditation attunes the inner-self to enhance the power, may be called, will power, possessed by everyone. An increased will power enables you to organize your activities for attaining the desired personal growth.

The Benefits Of Supplements

Supplements are available as supplements of food, minerals various formulations containing vitamins and minerals along with other nutrients. All supplements, in general are known as dietary supplements or nutritional supplements. They are to be used in addition to the daily diet for achieving different objectives. Supplements should be used very judiciously depending upon the present clinical conditions. There are many proprietary OTC supplements available in the market and indiscriminate use of them can cause harm to the consumer.

Food supplements

Food supplements contain intact or processed proteins from various sources and in addition may contain carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals, depending upon the purpose to be achieved. Food supplements are used in clinical conditions requiring additional dietary proteins, like pregnancy, lactation, growing child, certain deficiency diseases like anemia, tuberculosis, loss of weight etc. Sport persons and wrestlers also use food supplements. Food supplements are to be consumed in addition to the normal diet. Their requirement is expressed in grams.

Proprietary food supplements bear their value base on their content of essential amino acids. Amino acids are the constituents of protein. Essential amino acids are those which our body cannot synthesize and must be obtained from out side. First class source of protein like, milk and dairy products, eggs, meat, poultry, fish and sea food are capable of supplying essential amino acids. In order to obtain all the essential amino acid from vegetable source one has consume combination of variety of vegetarian food along with milk and dairy products. If one is not able to plan a diet in this way, then the essential amino acids have to be obtained from supplements. These essential amino acids are Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanise, Theonine and Valine. They are responsible for growth of muscle, tissue repair and production of hormones and enzymes. They help maintain immune system.

Mineral supplements

Minerals required by body in substantial quantities are calcium, phosphorous, iron, sulphur, magnesium, sodium, potassium and chlorine. In addition there are certain minerals required in trace quantities. These are known as trace minerals and they are iodine, copper, cobalt, manganese, zinc, seleminum, silicon, flourine and some others. Their requirement is expressed in milligrams or micrograms.

Major mineral supplement available in market is Calcium and formulation containing calcium. These are meant for clinical conditions showing deficiency or higher requirements of calcium. Such conditions are pregnancy, lactation, growing child, diseases caused by deficiency of calcium. Calcium supplements are used as integrative therapy in certain diseases. There are also available supplements formulations containing calcium as major ingredient along with other minerals along with trace minerals. Some may contain therapeutic amounts, while others may contain just the supplementary concentrations of minerals.

Major Minerals required having daily requirement more than 100 mg.


Daily requirement: 800-1000 mg.

Strengthens bones, regulates nerves; muscle and pH of blood, prevent stress, participate in the immune system, prevents osteoarthritis


Daily requirement: 150-450 mg.

Intake of magnesium need to be balanced with that of calcium. It is anti-stress mineral, participates in metabolism of vitamin C, carbohydrates and proteins. Essential for effective nerve and muscle functioning, important for enzymatic actions within the body. Needed for healthy functioning of heart, prevents calcium deposits in kidney and gall bladder.

Important for converting blood sugar into energy.


Daily requirement:s 500 mg.

Essential for normal growth, prevents sunstroke, helps in normal functioning of nerves and muscles, with potassium balances fluid level of body, helps in transporting other minerals to entire body through blood. Excessive sodium increases blood pressure.


Daily requirement: 2-4 gm.

Excessive sodium can precipitate potassium deficiency. With sodium balances fluid level of body, helps in normal functioning of heart, kidneys and skeletal muscles, helps in the functioning of liver, helps the process of nerve conduction, helps relive anxiety, helps reducing blood pressure. Deficiency causes hypoglycemia, confusion, anxiety, deterioration of nervous system, depression, deterioration of memory, noises in ears, acne, dry skin, eczema and skin eruptions, warts, lack of sleep, digestive disorders, gas, constipation, nausea, deterioration in functioning of heart and kidneys, muscular weakness, pains in extremities, fatigue, muscle cramps, numbness, tingling, paralysis, altered rate of pulse.

Major Minerals required having daily requirement less than 100 mg.


Daily requirement: 10 mg.

Carries oxygen in the blood and takes part in the metabolism of energy, improves immunity


Daily requirement: 50-200 mcg.

Improves utilization of insulin, part of certain metaloezymes, reduces cholesterol, participates in metabolism of carbohydrates. Deficiency produces corneal opacities, increases incidence of formation of plaque on the aorta, increases blood pressure, lead to deterioration of growth, baldness, deafness and can create a craving for chocolate. Refined food does not contain chromium.

Daily requirement: Trace

Cobalt is an structural part of the Vitamin B12 molecule and believed to aid secretion of thyroid hormones. Deficiency of Cobalt causes muscular weakness, gastro-intestinal disturbances and nervous tissue degeneration. Overdose can precipitate heart problems, overproduction of red blood cells and interference with the normal functioning of thyroid gland.


Daily requirement: 2-3 mg.

Promotes haemopoesis (generation of RBC), important for enzymatic action, helps in formation of blood cell and tissues, essential for the utilization of Vitamin C.


Daily requirement: 1.4-4 mg.

It helps strengthen the enamel of your teeth.


Daily requirement: 150 mcg.

Helps in the normal functioning of thyroid gland, deficiency causes goiter, cold feet, fatigue, eczema, dry and brittle hair, and retards mental and physical development. It used in the treatment of prostrate cancer, cancer therapy and bone metastases.


Daily requirement: 2-5 mg.

Takes part in enzymatic activities, helps in development of bone structure, functioning of thyroid gland, helps in the functioning of central nervous system, helps better blood sugar control, improves immune system, takes part in fat and carbohydrate metabolism, improves memory, improves metabolism of fatty acids, cholesterol and carbohydrates, helps in normal functions of reproductive system.


Daily requirement: 1.5-2 gm.

It is required along with calcium for development of strong bones and teeth, it takes part in metabolism of energy, deficiency causes deterioration of nervous system, cold hands, cold feet, numbness, sore breasts, night sweats, diarrhea, constipation, faint/rapid pulse, bleeding nose, impaired digestion of fat, deterioration of memory, anxiety, lack of sleep, cramps, neurological pain, shooting pains, colic, low fevers, skin edema, depression, deterioration if functioning of gallbladder.


Daily requirement: 50 ug.

It is an antioxidant, improves immune system, improves functioning of heart, helps eliminate free radicals. Deficiency causes dandruff, deterioration of muscle, calcification of muscle, sterility in males, fetal death/reabsorption, decreased resistance to ozone, crows feet, cardiomyopathy.


Daily requirement: Trace

Reduces cholesterol.


Daily requirement: 15 mg.

More than 40 enzymes dependent on zinc. Great amount of zinc is lost from food because of cooking.

Improves immune system, essential for the function of thymus, constituent of 80 different hormones, maintain blood sugar levels, helpful in repair and growth of tissues, speeds up wound healing, helps maintain mental equilibrium, improves carbohydrate absorption, maintains good eyesight, helps in maintenance of sense smell and taste, improves digestion and the absorption of copper.

Deficiency causes loss of appetite, retardation growth, loss of taste and smell, decreased sexual drive, loss of hair, diarrhea, delayed healing of wound, mental depression, poor resistance to infections.

Vitamin supplements

Several vitamins are available having various physiological functions. Vitamin are classified as fat-soluble and water-soluble. Vitamins A, D, E and K are all soluble in fat and hence known as fat-soluble. They are not destroyed by ordinary cooking methods and are stored in the body to some extent, mostly in the liver. Their requirement is expressed in international units (I.U.). Vitamin B Complex and C are water soluble. Potency of water soluble vitamins is destroyed by heating. Water soluble vitamins are not stored in body and therefore their supply has to be ensured on daily basis either in foods or as supplement. Excess of water soluble vitamin consumed is eliminated through urine or feces. Their requirement is expressed in milligrams or micrograms.

Therapeutic use of vitamins is of special value in relieving the symptoms of disease and reducing the period of recovery from illness. They are used in two ways such as, for correcting the deficiency and as replacement of certain drugs to treat diseases.

B Complex

Members of Vitamin B Complex are known as coenzymes. They are thiamine, B1; riboflavin, B2; niacin, B3; pantothenic acid, B5; pyridoxine, B6; cobalamine, B12; orotic acid, B13; biotin, choline, folic acid and coenzyme Q10.

They help digestion and metabolism of food. Deficiency causes lower energy levels and brain activities, poor immunity. They are destroyed by heat during cooking, caffeine and alcohol.

B1. Thiamine

Daily requirement: 2 mg for adults and 1.2 mg. for children.

Essential for normal functioning of circulatory and nervous system, growth and digestion of food. Improves mental attitude, helps normal functioning of heart and other muscles. Useful in motion sickness.

B2. Riboflavin

Daily requirement: 1.6 to 2.6 mg for adults and 0.6 to 1.0 mg for children.

Essential for growth and maintenance of body tissues, vision, control of sensitivity of eyes to light, healthy skin, nails and hair. Useful to treat soreness of mouth, lips and tongue.

B3. Niacin

Daily requirement:12 to 20 mg for adults and 4.8 to 12 mg for children.

Essential for metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein. Vital for maintaining a healthy skin, tongue and digestive system. Participate in the activities of the brain and nerves.

B5. Pantothenic Acid

Daily requirement: Daily requirement of this vitamin has not been established, but is estimated as 30 to 50 mg.

Essential for metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein. Vital for maintaining a healthy skin, tongue and digestive system. Participate in the activities of the brain and nerves. It takes part in the synthesis of anti-stress hormones. It improves immunity.

B6. Pyridoxine

Daily requirement: 2.0 mg for adults and 0.2 mg for children.

Essential for haemoposis (formation of RBCs). Improves immunity and eliminates free radicals, relieves stress, prevents formation of kidney stones, required for normal functioning of nervous system, it is often called the anti-depression vitamin, used in the treatment of morning sickness of pregnancy.

B12. Cobalamine

Daily requirement: 3 mcg

Essential for formation of RBC, essential for normal functioning of nervous system, useful to relieve premenstrual stress, it promotes growth. It is destroyed by antibiotics, and can be in lower concentration in the diet of vegetarians. It is used therapeutically in the treatment of anemia, fatigue, alcoholism and stress. It relieves irritability, improves concentration, memory.

This is a relatively unknown vitamin that is thought to be having anti-cancer property.

B9 Folic Acid

Daily requirement: 0.4 mg

Essential for formation of RBCs, vital in the development of the immune system, useful in detoxification of toxic substances like pesticides, drugs (abused drugs) and elimination of free radicals.

Choline. (Dimethyl Glycine)

It is a natural detoxifier and immune-stimulator.

C. Ascorbic Acid

Daily requirement: 50 to 75 mg for adults and 30 to 50 mg for children

Increases interferon activity in the blood, making it difficult for viruses to multiply. Required for the correct functioning of T cells, and other white blood cells. counteracts effects of pollution, required for normal functioning of adrenal glands, eliminates free radicals from the body, it is good antioxidant and detoxifier, aids utilization of calcium, essential for the synthesis of collagen. Smokers, alcohol drinking, stress full conditions, use of oral contraceptives, antibiotics, exposure to carbon dioxide and other pollutions requires vitamin C to counteract the damaging effects.

E. Tocopherol

Daily requirement: 15 I.U.

A natural antioxidant, offers protection against cancer, eliminated free radical from the body, improves immune system. Destroyed in foods on shelves for longer time.

F. Essential fatty acids

These are Omega-3 and Omega-6 which include linoleic acid and gamma-linoleic acid. Our body cannot synthesize essential fatty acids, and hence must be taken from food or supplements. Fatty acids are necessary for normal growth of infants and normal functioning of immune system. They increase the levels of high density lipoproteins (HDL cholesterol). Skin requires essential fatty acids to maintain its suppleness and a youthful appearance. Fatty acids help in the transmission of nerve impulses and its deficiency may impair learning abilities and memory.

K. Phytonadione,

It helps Regulate normal blood clotting, promotes normal growth and development and is essential for normal functioning of kidneys,

P Flavonoids

Improves utilization of vitamin C by improving absorption and protecting it from oxidation. Sources of this vitamin are found in the edible pulp of fruits, green pepper broccoli, and red grape juice. It helps maintenance of health blood vessels. Prevents accumulation of atherosclerotic plaque., It has anti-inflammatory. It may have property of reducing blood pressure by relaxing smooth muscle of cardiovascular system. It has anticancer property. It seems to prevent hemorrhoids, miscarriages, capillary fragility, bleeding of nose and retina. It reduces levels of cholesterol.

A healthy and well balanced diet normally provides all the required vitamins, minerals, protein, carbohydrates and fats and need not be supplemented by extra pills. If one does not get enough sunlight, then only supplementary vitamin D-3 is needed.

Treatments For Depression

Definition of depression

The symptoms of depression are sadness, feelings of hopelessness or guilt, sleeplessness, lack of energy, loss of weight, deterioration of physical health, mood, sexual drive/urge, relationships with family, friends and colleagues. Diminished level of activities like household activities, activities related to profession or study and activities of leisure time. The origin of depression is mind.

Causes of depression

So far no decisive causes of depression have been identified but it is believed that depression can occur because of genetic, biochemical and environmental reasons.

Genetically acquired depression or inherited depression occurs in a biological family and is observed in the family from one generation to another.

Biochemical depression is associated with decreased levels of monoamine in chronic depressive patients, although not a primary cause. In persons with depression, neurotransmitters (a naturally occurring chemical of brain) were altered. This may also occur because of symptoms of depression like lack of sleep or loss of weight. Some medications also cause depression as an adverse reaction and patient on such drugs should be closely supervised.

Environmental depression occurs because of perceived unfavorable social and professional. Stressful situations like loss of job, death of family member or financial crisis can precipitate depression. Development of normal emotional health can be obstructed because of the incidences of neglect in the childhood, sexual and physical abuse, or disregarding treatment. Major chronic diseases like cancer, tuberculosis, diabetes, cardiac diseases also can precipitate depression.

Treatment of depression

There are various approaches available to the treatment of depression in the present time such as medication, psychodynamic therapy, behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, cognitive therapy, sleep hygiene, exercise etc.

There are several types of antidepressant drugs available like tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, heterocyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. This list is chronological with reference to introduction of drugs. Newer drugs offer better patient compliance.

Treatment using appropriate drug combined with cognitive and interpersonal therapy has proved most successful in the treatment of depression.

Specific psychological treatments like cognitive and interpersonal therapy have proved to be as effective as drugs.

There is no authentic evidence that one form of treatment is superior to other (durg or non-drug), but there are some evidence that combination of drug and psychological treatment may be useful in severe cases of depression but not in mild to moderate cases.

Treatment of depression requires clinical skill and experience and therefore must be taken under the supervision of qualified professional. Self-medication can prove very dangerous to the personality of the patient of depression.

Alternative treatment

Since the origin of depression is mind, many doctors have found practice of meditation useful in the management of depression.

Variety of research have shown that conditions like chronic stress, neglect, and abuse, produce functional changes in the brain that are likely to be accompanied by structural changes. Researches on depression have revealed that patients with mood disorders exhibit structural differences in several regions of brain. Some of these differences are believed to be in association with cumulative number of days of depression. The report on these types of researches indicate the viability of development of a therapy for depression that are specifically designed to cultivate positive qualities, like equanimity and developing an affectionate attitude which are known to produce beneficial alterations in brain function and structure. It has been proved that a practice of meditation embedded with conceptual ideas for 2-month can produce alterations in brain activity.

Based on these observations, the practice of meditation is also being successfully used either as integrative therapy or alone for the treatment of depression. The one such type which is widely recommended is Vipassana mediation.

The Effects Of Pollution

Any undesirable changes in our surroundings which are harmful for plants, animals and human beings are known as pollution. Any thing that causes pollution is known as pollutant. Pollutants can be solid, liquid or gas or in the form of noise in an extent greater than tolerable limits prescribed by medical science. Pollution can occur due to human activities and natural events.

Undesirable solid (such as dust, haze, fumes, smoke, smog etc) or gaseous particles (such as oxides of sulphur, nitrogen and carbon, hydrogen sulphide, hydrocarbons and other oxidants.) in the air produce tropospheric pollution. Higher proportion of CO2 in the atmospheric air is the principal cause of global warming. This may ultimately lead to melting of ice in the North and South Pole and over a period of time certain coastal areas may go under water.

A layer of ozone in the stratosphere absorbs about 99.5 per cent of ultraviolet (UV) rays of sun and offers protection to humans and other animals from its harmful effect. Ozone layer is damaged by the effect of certain gases like nitrogen dioxide, methane, chlorine monoxide and CFCs. Environmental scientists working in Antarctica learned about the depletion of ozone layer (ozone hole) over the South Pole. With the depletion of ozone layer, more UV radiation is available to all living beings on earth which causes ageing of skin, cataract, sunburn, skin cancer in humans and damages aquatic life. Quality of plant proteins deteriorates because of undesirable mutation of cells. It enhances the evaporation of water through leaves and decreases the moisture of the soil.

Acid rain is the effect of pollutants. Use of fossil fuels (rich in sulphur and nitrogenous matter) like coal and oil in power stations and furnaces or petrol and diesel in motor engines emit sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, SO2 and NO2 which after oxidation and reaction with water cause acid rain. Many human activities which generate release sulphur and nitrogen oxides are also responsible for acid rains. Ammonium salts are also responsible for creating haze in atmosphere.

Acid rain washes out the nutrients needed for growth of agricultural plantations, trees and plants. Acid rain can precipitate respiratory disorders humans and animals. Acid rain mixes with the rivers, lakes etc. and affects the life of aquatic plants and animals and brings disorder in the ecosystem. It causes corrosion of the pipelines carrying water causing leaching of contaminants into the drinking water. Structures built from stone or metal are degraded by acid rains.

The major effect of pollution which is most visible to common man is the effect of water pollution. The origin of water pollution is human activities. Microorganisms, organic wastes, plant nutrients, toxic heavy metals, sediments, pesticides, chemicals, radioactive substances are the common pollutants found in polluted water. Pollutants reach surface water or ground water through leaking from municipal sewage pipes or deficiency is industrial waste disposal system. Presence of metals in water is detrimental to humans because they cannot be excreted. Over prolonged exposure, they accumulate in kidneys, central nervous system and liver and cause damage to these organs. Wastes from pesticides and dyes manufacturing factories are carcinogenic and capable of casing cancer in the human beings.

Effects of pollution have necessitated the need for judicious use of chemicals in agricultural activities for sustainable development. It has also triggered the need for developing strategies for control of pollution by employing proper system of waste management by reducing the waste as well as adopting proper disposal methods. It has also created a need for recycling of materials and energy. It has given rise to a new branch of chemistry, i.e. green chemistry which utilizes the existing knowledge to reduce the pollution.

The Benefits Of Exercise

“Life is movement; stagnation is death” is a citation from a physical educationist, Eugene Sandow. One cannot live healthy and enjoyable life without exercise. Weakness and ill-health is the consequence of absence of natural exercise.

With the advancements taking place in medical science, it was recognized that treatment of certain disorders requires restoration of injured muscles and nerves and that gave rise to the branch of treatment involving physical exercise, known as physiotherapy.

There is a difference between exercise and activity. Both involve voluntary movements of the body but activity involves movements with limited degree aimed at completing certain task. Lesser physical and conscious efforts are needed in activity when it becomes a routine. Exercise involves complete movement of the body covering the full range with objectives of improving tone of muscles, control over the movement of muscles and flexibility. Exercise requires considerable physical efforts with mental concentration.

There are several benefits of taking systematic physical exercise. Most important of the benefits are listed below.

Regular exercise improves utilization of food by the body to improve over all health and fitness. A healthy person usually expresses a sound physique and glowing skin.

Regular exercise tones up the nervous system and blood circulation and hence there is improved flow of blood throughout the body resulting in a sound mental health.

Exercise can prevent or reduce prolapse of internal organs by maintain natural muscular support to them.

Exercise ensures appropriate blood flow to each and every organ of the body, including brain and heart and hence offers resistance to fatigue.

Exercise allows lungs to fully expand and contract resulting in increased capacity of lungs and hence gives protection against respiratory diseases, improves capacity of holding breath, which also makes the act of exercising easier.

Abdominal exercises involve muscles of abdomen and lower abdomen which aids gastric motility enabling elimination intra-intestinal accumulations through defecation.

Exercise improves venous and arterial functions along with the increased capacity of heart and normalizes the rate of heart and thus offers protection from developing hypertension and heart diseases.

Exercise restores and enhances the elasticity of the muscles and also prevents the further damage. As a result muscles and the skin are rendered flexible and the effects of aging i.e. drooping muscles and wrinkles are reduced.

Exercise involves sweating which facilitates the process of detoxification.

Exercise improves quality of blood. Clinical trials have proved that exercise improves hemoglobin levels, renders blood relatively alkaline and lowers total cholesterol with increases in High density lipoproteins and decrease in low density lipoproteins.

Exercise plays an important role in the management of stress related to job or profession by providing recreation, mental relaxation and keeps the body physically and mentally fit.

Exercise relieves the symptoms of chronic fatigue by improving circulation of blood. It relieves tension and allows adequate sleep. Moderate physical exercise in the evening will refresh and recreate.

Exercise imparts physical and mental strength, strengthens will power and self control for harmonious development of body and mind.

Exercise improves the balance hormones in blood and increase beta-endorphins (chemical found in brain which affects the mood and gives a feeling of well being.

Exercise relieves you from feeling of helplessness because it gives you a feeling of some accomplishment in the form of benefit of exercise.

The Causes Of Hair Loss

Reasons for hair loss are not yet fully recognized. Loss of hair can be due to genetic disorders. Medically, continuous loss of hair is known as alopecia.

Hair loss may be for the short duration (less than 3 months), long duration (3 to 24 months), or permanent.

Development of hair takes place in various stages. The starting stage is anagen (meaning growth) stage during which divisions of cell of hair bulb secretes keratinocytes forming various layers of the individual hair shaft. Melanocytes of hair bulb impart color to the hair by the process of pigmentation which involves kazeratinocytes. After the hair has grown to a certain length, it undergoes the degradation stage known as catagen stage. At this stage cell division and pigmentation stops and the hair enters resting stage called telogen. During this stage, existing follicle is replaced by a new follicle (shedding of hair) and a new hair grows to replace the original. At any point of time 80 to 90 percent of the hairs are in anagen stage, 10 to 20 percent are in the telogen stage and rest 1 to 2 percent are in catagen stage.

Loss of hair takes place whenever there is any deviation in the normal processes of telogen or anagen stages. When telogen stage is extended, excessive shedding of hair takes place as a result excessive hair loss is observed, and medically this is termed as telogen effluvium. When anagen stage of hair development fails, then there is a loss of hair. Alopecia areata universalis is a condition of loss of hair occurring due to failure of anagen stage. Failure of anagen stage is considered the most vide spread cause of hair loss. Androgenetic alopecia (male pattern baldness) is the best example of this type of hair loss. It is believed that effects of dihydotestosterone is the cause of failure of anagen stage

There are several reasons and types of hair loss. Hair loss can take place because of natural aging, diseases, injuries, drug and non-drug treatments.

Following is described in brief various conditions of hair loss.

Male and female pattern baldness

Male-pattern baldness is familial and believed to be influenced by levels of hormone. dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a hormone responsible for loss of hair in male which is made from male hormone testosterone. Genetically prone persons have hair follicles susceptible to DHT and excess level of DHT results in thin hair and loss of hair. Under the effect of DHT, the growth period of hair is shortened and hairs are shorter than normal and this may affect different areas of the scalp

In addition, in is believed that under the influence of DHT, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia occurs (BPH-innocent growth of prostatic glands in males) and during this period males are prone to loss of hairs.

Female-pattern baldness is not clearly understood. In the post menopausal period baldness and thinning of hair is common in females as the level of estrogen decreases.

Women suffering from polycystic ovarian syndrome and other hormonal disorders possess higher levels testosterone and are at risk of developing facial hairs and thin hairs over the scalp.

Alopecia areata

This is an autoimmune disorder. In the case of alopecia areata the immune system does not recognize body’s own cells and damages the hair follicles. The hair follicles in this case are not damaged permanently and hair may grow back in short duration. Alopecia areata also accompanies other autoimmune disorders like hyperthyroidism, diabetes and leucoderma.

Scarring alopecia

Permanent damage to the hair follicles is responsible for this condition. Skin disorders like discoid lupus, lichen planus, folliculitis decalvans, frontal fibrosing alopecia, scleroderma can cause this type of hair loss.

Anagen effluvium

Hair loss occurring due to adverse effects of treatments like cancer chemotherapy, immunotherapy and radiotherapy is called Anagen effluvium. While treating rapidly growing cancer cells, these therapies influence all rapidly growing cells of the body, including cells of hair follicle in certain part of body or allover the body.

Telogen effluvium

This temporary condition of hair loss occurs due to various short-lived conditions. Hormonal changes associated with pregnancy, illness of short duration, emotional stress, severe infections, surgery, chronic illness like liver disorders, cancers etc.

Other causes of hair loss are crash diets, malnutrition and deficiency of vitamins. Hair loss can also occur as adverse effect of some drugs. Anti-coagulants, anti-platelets, anti-thrombotics, beta blockers, cholesterol reducing agents etc. can also cause telogen effluvium.

The Causes Of Cancer

Cancer is a disease in which there is uncontrolled growth of cells. Cancer is classified according to the type of cell affected in the beginning of the disease. When the cells divide to form tumor, then it is harmful to the body (but in leukemia cancer affects the normal function of the blood through abnormal division of blood cells). Growth of tumor

Normal functioning of digestive, nervous, and circulatory systems is affected because of growth of tumors. Tumors secrete certain hormones which interfere with the normal functions of the body. Stationary tumors with limited growth are usually benign (harmless/innocent).

A cell affected by cancer is called a malignant cell. When a malignant cell enters blood or lymphatic system, it moves through out the body and destroys healthy tissue. This process is called invasion and leads to metastasis, which is a very serious condition and very difficult to cure.

All malignant cells, are capable of growing blood vessels to provide nutrition to it self. This phenomenon is known as angiogenesis. The growth of tumor is effected by the process of angiogenesis.

Death of a patient because of cancer is attributed to metastatic tumors. It is observed that only 10 percent of the deaths due to cancer are attributable to primary tumor.

Recently it is found that the motility of malignant cells is more than that of normal cells. Malignant cells can easily find their way to penetrate through smaller spaces to spread out in the other parts of the body.

Normal cells in the body growth, divide, and ultimately die following a phenomenon called apoptosis. When cell deviates from this natural process, there is beginning of cancer. A malignant cell does not under go apoptosis and continues to divide and hence there is a growth of tumor.

What Causes Cancer?

Uncontrolled growth of cell can occur when there is damage or mutations to DNA, i.e. damage to the genes responsible for division of cell. Four key types of gene drive the division of cell: oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes regulate the division of cell so to say that they direct the cell to when to divide or when not to divide. Suicide genes regulate the process of apoptosis and direct the cell to kill itself under unfavorable conditions. Damages occurred to DNA are repaired by DNA-repair genes.

When functioning of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene is hampered, uncountable growth of cell occur leading to a cancer. Cancerous cell is also formed when damage to DNA is not repaired and the cell is does not commit suicide.

Carcinogens are chemicals, gases and radiations which are responsible for damaging DNA and are the main cause of cancer. Substances like tobacco, asbestos, arsenic, gases from car exhaust or fumes generated by factories, radiations like gamma and x-rays, ultraviolet are carcinogens. When we ingest carcinogens, free radicals are generated in the body which are capable of damage DNA of the cells and affect their normal functions.

Occurrence of cancer can be due to variety of reasons. Known causes of cancer, are genetic factors; lifestyle factors such as use of tobacco, alcohol, obesity, diet and nutritional status, physical activity etc; certain types of infections, and exposure to undesired environments such as chemicals and ultraviolet, x-ray radiation.

An Introduction To Alternative Medicine

Alternative medicine is a health care practices which may include diagnostic methods, products and therapies other than the wide spread system of allopathic or modern conventional medicine.

Following are the most common alternative medicine practiced all over the world

Herbal medicines, Ayurvedic medicine, naturopathy, Aromatherapy, Massage therapy, Acupuncture, Acupressure (Reflexology), Reiki, meditation and yoga, Homoeopathy, chiropractic, Body manipulation, Traditional Chinese medicine, Chromo therapy (treatment by various colors).

An alternative medicine of one location may be a conventional in another. For example, osteopathy is not an alternative medicine in America, while chiropractic is not considered alternative in Denmark.

Herbal medicines and Ayurvedic medicine

In both of these systems of medicine, herbs or herbal extracts or powder prepared from the herb are used as medicine. Ayurvedic medicine also uses preparations called ‘bhasmas’ or ‘pishtis’ made by processing of herbs or minerals.


Nature cure is based on the concept that when man takes birth in a healthy state he can maintain this healthy state if he lives according to laws of nature. It has its base on vitalism. Vital energy or vital force influences metabolism, reproduction, growth, and adaptation of our body. Naturopathy believes in holistic approach, non-invasive treatment and minimal use of surgery and drugs.

Diseases are treated by employing natural healing agents like fresh air; sunshine, a proper diet, exercise and relaxation; right mental attitude; prayer, meditation and yoga.

Aroma therapy

Aroma therapy as the name suggests, is an alternative form of treating diseases which employ aromatic compounds. Essential oils are the volatile components derived from the plant sources and contain aromatic compounds. Aroma therapy includes inhalation and topical application of aromatic compounds.

Massage therapy

Massage therapy involves massaging of different parts of body. Massage is considered as passive exercise involving scientific manipulation of the muscles body. Massage therapy if correctly carried out, can be highly stimulating and invigorating.


In Acupuncture treatment several point on our body are punctured with a tiny needle and mild current is passed through. It is believed that insertion of needles influences the flow of energy responsible rot the disease.

Acupressure (Reflexology)

Acupressure involves pressing intensely certain point on our palms and feet to heal various types of disorders. It is believed that intense pressure on a points related to the diseased organ, generates electrical impulses to cure the disease.


Reiki is a Japanese system of healing, which offers healing through correction of energy fields by giving Reiki to various nerve plexus. It is based on the belief that supernatural energies flow through palms of the healer into the various nerve plexus forming various ‘Chakras’ (they are the centers and source of supernatural energy) in the body to stimulate them to affect the healing.

Meditation And Yoga

Meditation involves correction of our breathing pattern and offers relief from various diseases by normalizing breathing pattern and body metabolism.

Yoga involves Yogasans which are various static posture of our body and is helpful in alleviating diseases. Yoga and meditation are considered as lifestyle for a healthy living.


Homeopathy is based on principle of “like cures like”. A disease treated with a very low dose of a drug which produces symptoms of disease in a healthy person.

Chiropractic and Body manipulation

Body-based therapies such as massage, chiropractic and osteopathy use movement and physical manipulation of joints and muscles.

Traditional Chinese medicine

Traditional Chinese Medicine is based on a concept of “spirit” called qi. Chinese medicine involves use of herbal plants substances of China. It is believed that a map of the disease is produced on the tongue and the treatment is based on that map.

Chromo therapy (treatment by various colors)

Treatment using various colors is used in conjunction with other natural remedies like appropriate diet, regular exercise, meditation and yoga, adequate rest and relaxation. According to concepts of chromo therapy, a disease is caused by deficiency of a particular color in the body system. Techniques of chromo therapy restore balance of color through light having different colors. Water charged with different colors is also used externally and internally. Different colors have different therapeutic effects. Vegetables and fruits having different colors are also included as part of chromo therapy.

Each system of alternative medicine has their methods of diagnosis and treatment.

A concept of Integrative medicine also has emerged for offering treatment in stubborn diseases. It is the combination of two and methods of treatment (evidence-based medicine and alternative medicine).

The Causes Of Diabetes

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which blood sugar is increased and/or sugar is excreted in urine. It occurs due to malfunctioning of endocrine system.

The carbohydrate that we eat is ultimately converted to glucose and utilized to produce calories or energy. Insulin is a hormone secreted by pancreas with the help of which glucose is utilized to produce energy. In the patient of diabetes, the secretion of insulin is less or absent and hence the level of glucose in blood increases and it is also excreted in urine.

Glucose is magic natural substance which imparts energy to every living being. Our brain can utilize energy produced by glucose only. If glucose in not available to brain even for a few moments, then damage can occur to the brain. Metabolic processes ensure constant supply of glucose to brain and each and every cell of our body. Pancreas and insulin plays important role in metabolism of glucose in our body.

Pancreas is a ductless gland situated behind stomach and it’s secretion is directly supplied to the blood. A large portion of pancreas secretes digestive juice. Amongst the cells which secrete this digestive juice, located are the beta cells of pancreas which secrete insulin. Insulin secreted by beta cells directly mixes with blood and reaches every cells of body.

Insulin is a key for the entry of glucose to the cell through the cell wall. In the absence of insulin, glucose cannot enter the cell and the cell is deprived of the much needed energy.

In the condition known as diabetes, insulin is not secreted or its secretion is insufficient and therefore glucose in the flood is not utilized by the cells and the level of glucose increases in the blood. In the absence of insulin, this surplus glucose is not stored by the body and hence it is excreted in urine. Glucose does not appear in the urine until its blood level rises to 180 mg/dl. When blood glucose level exceeds 180 mg/dl, it starts appearing in urine.

Reasons for occurrence of diabetes include faulty dietary habits (consumption excessive fat and carbohydrate and sugar), sedentary life style, genetic inheritance, obesity, age.

Types of diabetes are Type 1, Type 2, and Diabetes of pregnancy.

Type 1 diabetes occurs at the age below 20 years. The reason for development of diabetes is thin and weak body and destruction of beta cells of pancreas. Onset of diabetes is sudden. Patient becomes hungry and thirsty very often. There is gradual reduction in body weight. Fatigue and increased saliva are common symptoms. Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin injections.

Type 2 diabetes occurs usually after the age of 40 years. The reasons for occurring type 2 diabetes are obesity, lack of exercise, overeating and familial. Onset of diabetes is gradual and hence it is difficult to ascertain that when it would have started. Fatigue, excessive thrust, frequent sufferings from infections, difficulty in healing of wounds, tingling sensation in arms and feet, increased frequency of urine are the common symptoms. Type 2 diabetes is treated with modification of lifestyle, drugs, exercise and whenever needed, with insulin.

Diabetes occurring during pregnancy

Almost 5 percent of pregnant ladies develop diabetes in the sixth to ninth month of pregnancy. Secretion of Hormones for the development of fetus interferes with functioning of insulin and thus blood sugar increases. This is transient diabetes and disappears after the birth of child. But in rare occasion it may become a permanent condition.

The symptoms of pregnancy diabetes are just like type 2 diabetes.

In the incidence of diabetes occurring during pregnancy, chances of abortion increases, but development of the fetus takes place normally. There is a possibility of birth of overweight child. Diabetes of pregnancy is treated with diet control and insulin only.

About 35 to 50 percent of women who suffered from diabetes of pregnancy are at risk to develop diabetes at later age.

If diabetic patients maintain a healthy lifestyle by consuming appropriate diet, taking regular exercise and takes medicines regularly, then they can very well keep their diabetes under control and lead a happy life.

How To Effectively Lose Weight

If you are contemplating to lose weight, then first find out the root cause of your excess weight. If your excess weight is expression of symptom of some underlying metabolic disorder, then you should get the help from expert doctor for addressing the problem of weight gain and under take weight reduction program under medical supervision. If it is overeating then take time to think about root caused of your overeating, which may be frequent consumption of alcohol in a day, anxiety and stress, depression or other causes which you can identify and resolve with the help of a health practitioner. It is advisable to address to root cause(s) before adopting the weight reduction tips recommended in this writing.

Medically, excess of weight is excessive deposition of fat as adipose tissues in the body. Excessive fat in the body is cause of many diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, peripheral vascular diseases, arthritis of knees and ankles etc.

The ideal way to lose weight is to alter your dietary habits, lifestyle and include smart exercising for preserving muscle and lose excess of fat.

Dietary concept for reducing weight

One should first decide the target weight to be attained based on the height. Next step is to ascertain the daily requirement of calories according to height, age, desired body weight and the level of activities (light, moderate or heavy). Then one should alter the dietary habit so as to consume about 60 to 70 percent of the required calories. The gap of energy between the calories you need and the calories you are consuming is filled by the deposited fat in your body. The extra fat in your body is utilized to produce the energy and thus you will loose excess of weight.

This is the simplest and the most natural way of losing weight in the absence of any metabolic disorder. When you are following this method for reducing weight, ensure that you consume extra amount of fat-free protein at every meal (in the form of skimmed milk without sugar, boiled egg, fat-free curd/yogurt without sugar or any other such proprietary product). This will impart to you a sense of satiety and well being, resulting in lesser urge for eating.

On average young men require 1.6 times the resting calories and young women require 1.5 times the resting calories.

In order to reduce weight you should consume 70 per cent of 2625 i.e. 1840 calories daily from your food consumption. 785 calories that you consume less will be provided by the fat deposits in your body. So to say 785/9 i.e. you will loose about 87 gm of weight daily. You will loose about one Kg. of your weight in 11 days. You can increase the pace of loss of weight by decreasing calorie consumption.

While doing so you must ensure that you consume at least 35 gm of protein of high biological value in a day to maintain the level of your satiety and well being.

The basic concept of losing weight is to make the deposited fat available for producing energy and in order to make that happen one should consume less number of calories. Since you are curtailing the intake of carbohydrate and fat, you need to take a good vitamin supplement as per recommendation of a health care provider.

Other important tips on diet are as follows.

– Chew the food very well to form a pulpy or milky liquid which can be swallows without making efforts. Enjoy the taste of the food which you are eating. Allot enough time to eat and enjoy.

– Eat only when you are hungry. It is ideal to develop a schedule for eating and follow the same every day. After a practice of few days this will become part of your biological clock.

Ideally the one who desires to reduce weight should consume lacto-vegetarian diet. Natural organic foods, whole grains, seeds, fresh fruits and vegetables help in weight reduction regimen. All refined white flour products, sweets, chocolates, canned foods and syrup, soft drinks, squashes must be avoided. Excessive intake of tea, coffee, alcohol and tobacco should be avoided.

Role of exercise in reducing weight

One can also utilize the deposited fat with the help of exercises like walking, biking, running, playing with your children, sports, swimming, etc. Regular exercise offers mental and physical recreation and keeps you mentally and physically fit. It is nature’s best tranquillizer.

Following table gives you an idea about how much calories you can burn after doing various types of exercises.

Calories used by a Person weighing about 70 kg

Activity                              Per Hour             Per Minute
Bicycling (10 mph)            420                      7.0
Bowling                              270                      4.5
Ice Skating (leisurely)        300                      5.0
Jumping Rope                    750                      12.5
Mountain Climbing            600                      10.0
Playing Golf                      270                       4.5
Playing Pool                      120                       2.0
Racquetball                       540                        6.0
Running (7.5 mph)           750                        12.5
Sitting                                100                        1.7
Sleeping                            80                            1.3
Snowshoeing (3 mph)      360                          6.0
Standing                           140                           2.3
Swimming (recreational)   600                         10.00
Walking On Level              360                           6.0
Walking Up Stairs             1050                         17.5
Water Skiing                      390                           6.5

Up to 15 hours following vigorous exercise, the body continues to burn calories at a higher rate than it would without exercise. Moderate physical exercises are helpful in reducing weight.

Att Go Phones – Reverse Phone Number Lookup

ATT Go Phones Reverse Phone Number Lookup Directory Service provides an answer to “whose number is this”?


You might receive a phone call by a number which you do not recognize and then probably you will ask yourself whose number is this? It becomes irritating at times if the phone keeps on ringing and you get anonymous calls repeatedly from the same number. Sometimes you look into your partner or spouse’s mobile phone or in his or her wallet and an unknown number is written on a piece of paper. This is suspicious and you start thinking, whose number is this? Who are they talking to? And several questions start coming into your mind with curiosity to search the owner of the number.

A helping hand

Now you might be thinking that since you have found the number, where to start searching for the owner of the number. Or confirming that your suspicious mind is just overreacting, you may want to give it some rest. Well here in this article the answer to all your questions will be given.

If you are brave enough then the simplest thing you can do is to call the number and ask who he or she is. But many people do not want to do this. A lot of people ask their friends or relatives to call the number and ask who he or she is. If you are a male person then you can ask any other female friend to call and if you are a female then you can ask your male friend to call the number. It will not be easy to attract the caller if a person of the same sex calls. It would look suspicious to the individual at the other end of the phone. At the same time this method will not work all the time because the person calling on your behalf may or may not like to reveal their number.

Other options

Another option is to do a Google search. If you are lucky then you can get the details. But it is a straight long shot. Best thing what you can do is to use a reverse look up phone number service. This service is comprehensive and reliable because a fee is required to get the details. Obviously nothing is for free now-a-days. If it is then most likely it is not trustworthy. By just spending a few bucks you will get almost all of the information of the unknown caller. Thus, ATT go phones reverse lookup phone number service directory is one single answer to your question of whose number is this.

“Whose number is this?” is a question which keeps coming into our minds when calls come from unknown number. Many people have been plagued with this question, until an answer has been found. The solution to the problem is reverse phone number lookup . It really works. There are many others like yellow pages and white pages but these are not as satisfactory as what reverse lookup numbers are. Here in this article you will get solutions without wasting your time and efforts. Now finally you can get the name and the address of the person who keeps calling you from an unrecognized phone number.

Some important factors to consider

Two main factors to be noticed while making use of this reverse lookup phone service:

1. The number you have entered in the search box is error free i.e. all of the digits are correct.
2. You are searching for the number on the correct type of lookup website i.e. the database is frequently updated.

Make sure that both of the things mentioned above are absolutely correct because if any of them are incorrect then you will not get the information that you are looking for.

Phone Number

As mentioned in the above paragraph, every number whether it is a cell phone number, toll free number or landline number should be put in the search box correctly. If you want a correct outcome then simply copy and paste the number from your call log into the search box. Don’t submit the number until and unless you make sure it is correct. This is really the only way to get all of the details you require in respect to the unknown number.

Reverse look up directories

One of the best renown services which help you in getting whose number is this are reverse look up directories. These directories help you in getting information of the number from which calls are coming i.e. the person who owns the number. These directories charge a little fee but have about 99% of the database of all phone numbers. The ATT go phones reverse look up directories include business numbers, toll free numbers, unlisted numbers, pager numbers and also cell phone numbers. This is the easiest way to get any number search done. The reason being each and every category of numbers is listed.

Disadvantage of free services

If you find difficulty while searching the service then that is no problem at all because you can easily get live service help online. Before paying you can search for the number in the directory to ensure that the number is available. There is only about a 1% possibility that the number will not be available and you will not get the information you require. Apart from this, there are a few reverse look up number services which give information for free. But one of the biggest disadvantages of the free service is that only public phone numbers are listed. It means that all other numbers are not available. Unless you are searching for a number that is not publicly listed i.e. landline number then the information you are searching for will not be available.

Websites for Reverse Phone Number Lookup

Countless websites are there that could help you in finding out the mysterious caller. Some specific categories are determined to check the reliability of these websites. This is basically the reviews and ratings given by various users. To begin searching type the digits of the phone number in, hit search and then let it load. In just a few seconds the results will appear on the screen. By now you must be thinking, what is the amount being charged for using this service? You need not worry, since most likely it will just be a small fee. Websites that give phone number information for free are not really that reliable at all. The correct data will be given only when the database is updated on a regular basis. Thus, the question of whose number is this will not be irritating you. You will get all the correct information without wasting time and much effort. ATT go phones Reverse lookup phone number service is the best service when it comes to finding out who a specific caller is.